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Rencontre comète-planète‎ : étude théorique et comparaisons méthodologiques

Abstract : The study of the origin and evolution of the currently know short-period comets is a complex issue. Nevertheless, it is based on a simple idea : the comets would reach their current orbit after deep encounters and perturbations due to the jovian planets. Since about four centuries, a lot of scientists have treated this problem with theoretical methods or, recently, by numerical integration of the comets motion. The objective of my work was to evolve a theoretical model of encounter comet-planet, to apply it to the 155 known short-period comets and to compare the achieved results to those provided by numerical integration. In fact, the scenario of encounter I considered is associated to a shock defined by Poincaré, consequently to a quasi-collision of two bodies occurring through a tiny lapse of time. A comet with a conic orbit O1 meets close to one of its vertices a planet, breaks up if it crosses the Roche limit and generates one or several comets with an orbit O2. The initial vertex becomes one of the vertices of the final orbit. Moreover, I assumed that the orbital plane of the comet was unchanged by the encounter. The numerical results have shown that some comets have had a near-parabolic initial orbit, and initial orbit beyond the Neptune’s one, have been under the successive influence of several planets or have seemed to remain in the neighborhood of the same planet. The comparisons with the numerical integration agreed with a such sample of orbits.
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Valérie Batllo. Rencontre comète-planète‎ : étude théorique et comparaisons méthodologiques. Astrophysique [astro-ph]. Observatoire de Paris, 1997. Français. ⟨NNT : 1997OBSP0075⟩. ⟨tel-02154118⟩

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