Modeling the atmospheric propagation of electromagnetic waves in 2D and 3D using fourier and wavelet transforms

Abstract : The long-range propagation of electromagnetic waves is a major issue in telecommunication, navigation, and surveillance. The objective of this Ph.D. thesis is to develop fast and accurate modeling methods for the tropospheric propagation in 2D and 3D. In this work, two main contributions towards this objective are achieved. Firstly, self-consistent methods, i.e. based on the discrete electromagnetic theory, are developed in 2D and 3D. Secondly, a fast wavelet-based 2D method is proposed. For simulating the electromagnetic wave propagation in a 2D atmosphere, the split-step Fourier method (SSF) is widely used. The computation is performed marching on in distances taking into account a variable refractivity, an irregular relief, and the electric characteristics of the ground. At each step, the signal is transformed from the spatial to the spectral domains. The phase screens method is applied to model refraction. Besides, to model an impedance ground, the discrete mixed Fourier transform (SSF-DMFT) is used. The concept of the self-consistent electromagnetic theory implies that the use of discrete Maxwell equations for numerical simulations does not lead to spurious solutions. In the widely used SSF-DMFT, the spectral transform is based on the discrete impedance boundary condition, while the propagator is derived from the continuous equation. To overcome this inconsistency, a discrete formulation of SSF-DMFT is proposed, denoted as DSSF-DMFT. The spectral transform and propagator are both derived from the discrete equations to achieve self-consistency. Numerical tests show that SSF-DMFT has spurious oscillations in certain simulation conditions, whereas DSSF-DMFT remains accurate. Indeed, the self-consistency prevents from numerical instabilities. To simulate the propagation in 3D environments, the previous methods are extended to 3D. First, 3D-SSF is presented as a natural extension of SSF. Then, 3D-DSSF is derived from discrete equations. To consider an impedance ground, 3D-DSSF-DMFT is developed leading to new expressions for the propagators. These methods are tested for several configurations, including a refractivity profile extracted from measurements. Results show that they have a high accuracy. They notably consider lateral effects. However, for the propagation in a large computation domain, time and memory occupations become the main concern. To improve the computation burden, a split-step wavelet method (SSW) is proposed in 2D as an alternative to SSF. It is based on the fast wavelet transform, which complexity is weak and which allows for data compression. The propagation is performed by means of a linear combination of wavelets that are individually propagated. Data compression is applied to increase the efficiency. A new local image source method dedicated to wavelet propagation is proposed to consider the ground reflection. Numerical tests show that this method has a higher computational efficiency than SSF while keeping a good accuracy.
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Hang Zhou. Modeling the atmospheric propagation of electromagnetic waves in 2D and 3D using fourier and wavelet transforms. Electromagnetism. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30018⟩. ⟨tel-01929593⟩

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