Les opérations de portage foncier pour préserver l'usage agricole : une analyse par les coordinations, les transactions et les institutions

Abstract : This PhD dissertation focuses on land backing actions, which notably increase in France since the early 2000s. These initiatives include different types of stakeholders among local authorities, agricultural professional organizations and non-governmental organizations. By acquiring land, they aim to control long-term agricultural use in areas threatened by urbanization by securing farmers' access to land. Some comparable collective initiatives also occur in European and North-American countries (Land trusts, fiducies, cooperatives ...), particularly raising environment and alternative agriculture issues. The land backing actions observed in France are specific for two reasons: in one hand they involve local public authorities, and in the other hand they emerge facing the threat of urbanization. Yet the devolved public action has many available instruments for the preservation of agricultural land. Hence, the use of ownership, which is now considered in the long term, brings up questions. This PhD thesis addresses the singular modalities induced by land backing actions in the farmland governance. It combines three analyses at the coordinations meso-economic level, at the transactions micro-economic level, and at the institutions macro-economic level. Rooted in institutional economics, the approach provides some focus from these three points of view. The first one is an analysis of the agreement design, on which the land backing actions stand, between stakeholders with various goals and legitimacy. It is based on the framework of the Economics of conventions. The second one focuses on the effect of land backing actions on farmers' access to land use. An analysis grid of the different land-use access costs is developed, using in particular the transaction costs concept. The third focus is a consideration of institutional changes induced by land backing actions, via a historical analysis of the use-ownership relation as an institutional formula. This thesis maintains that negotiations between stakeholders who are involved in land backing actions hardly ever broach the subject of farmland preservation facing urbanization, aside from the question of its use. The projected farming model often founds the initiative, notably for the relationship between agriculture and environment. Nevertheless farmland backing induces a new land use access mode for farmers, which is more difficult to organize, but also much less uncertain. At the same time, the private property right is back in the use-ownership relation resulting therefrom. The property right was however relatively subservient to the private right to use, for the public interest that it represents since the mid-20th century. By not much specifying the outlines of general interest, public action let its determination at the discretion of the local private dynamics, with a risk of inducing territorial inequalities.
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Christine Léger-Bosch. Les opérations de portage foncier pour préserver l'usage agricole : une analyse par les coordinations, les transactions et les institutions. Economies et finances. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015GREAE001⟩. ⟨tel-01234217⟩

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