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Theses

Mesure et modélisation de la lumière naturelle dans les canyons urbains

Abstract : As the world population and the urbanization increase, cities become denser, thus reducing access to daylight and sunlight for city dwellers. This access is linked to some issues such as energy consumption, health and comfort; it can be limited by several urban fabric features such as street width, building height, façade and road coating. We have evaluated the influence of the most important features of an urban canyon regarding daylight availability inside the canyon under real sky conditions.To that end, we have built a scale model of an urban canyon, the simplest representation of a street. This scale model can be modified: the aspect ratio H/W (Height/Width) can be changed as well as the type of façade. During one year, outdoor illuminances have been measured every minute on the ground and at different heights of the façades. Hence, we created a database containing twelve combinations of an urban canyon with the following parameters: three aspect ratios (H/W=2, 1 and 0.5) and four types of façades with different reflection factors. The different coatings of the façades are: black, white, roughcast and roughcast with windows. We evaluate the influence of these parameters for each type of sky defined according to the CIE for a north/south orientated canyon.We also use this database in order to evaluate the ease of use, performance and precision of three software tools for the estimation of solar radiation in urban context: Citysim, Daysim and Heliodon, each having different simplification levels.Finally, we have carried a measuring campaign in the streets of the French city of Lyons. This campaign allowed us to realize the difficulty of collecting data in the field and modelling solar radiation of a real street. We have also assessed a new method for measuring illuminances of a whole façade. This method is based on a luminance map generated from a calibrated digital camera equipped with a fisheye lens. A comparison between these illuminances with illuminances measured on the scale model with regular sensors allows us to estimate the bias of using a simplified coating.Based on illuminances measured on the scale model, a canyon with an aspect ratio H/W=1 has a better access to daylight, it represents a good compromise between contributions of the sky and the opposing façade. Every city has an optimal canyon shape according to its local climate that could be defined as the frequency of occurrence of the CIE types of sky. We have evaluated the ability of the selected software tools to take into account the climate. For clear skies, Heliodon is able to produce illuminances close to those measured on the scale model. Because the weather changes throughout the year, one would rather take into account the 15 CIE types of sky instead of using either a clear sky or an overcast sky as many studies do. Citysim and Daysim are able to take into account the climate and correlate well with scale model measurements for each type of sky. The method for measuring illuminances using a fisheye lens camera has been validated based on the measurements in real streets of Lyons. This method could produce more accurate values using a reflection factor map of the façade. Illuminances measured on the scale models didn’t correlate well with illuminances measured in real streets because of the complexity of the streets compared to the simplicity of the idealized canyon of the scale model. The use of simplified models of streets can lead to bad results, for instance, with studies estimating the energy consumption of buildings for lighting at district or urban scale. The density of urban areas must decrease in order to improve access to daylight. That would provide other advantages such as the reduction of exposure to vehicles pollution or reduction of the urban heat island. The calculation of an ideal aspect ratio could be achieved using tools evaluated in this thesis.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01088928
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Submitted on : Tuesday, October 3, 2017 - 1:35:07 PM
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Patriarche_thesis_2014.pdf
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  • HAL Id : tel-01088928, version 2

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Manolis Patriarche. Mesure et modélisation de la lumière naturelle dans les canyons urbains. Ingénierie de l'environnement. École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État [ENTPE], 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014ENTP0009⟩. ⟨tel-01088928v2⟩

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