Le combat pour les droits des femmes dans le monde arabe

Abstract : Women's rights constitute political and identity issues important in the Arab world. Since the emergence of Arab independent States, any modernisation of society goes through women's rights, any questioning of modernity starts with these rights and happens at their expense. In spite of the elaboration of legal texts protecting women and recognizing important rights for them, their status remains fragile; the discriminations that still persist against them, in the name of tradition or of customs and rites filled with sacrality and religiousity, are dedicated to the internal laws of the considered country, in social practice and in the reservations given at the time of the ratification of international conventions, mainly in the international Convention related to the elimination of all forms of discrimination towards women (CEDAW). The attitude of States is paradoxical and ambivalent. Official discourse expresses all at once a politic of emancipation for women, of the promotion of their rights and of the maintaining of ancestral patriarchal order, leaning on rules of religious origin which continue to govern the family and society. Our topic aims at analysing the approach that wants to inscribe itself in the Universality of human rights in general while privileging the cultural specificity: for sure, the overwhelming majority of Arab states (at least 19 of them) have ratified this convention, but most of them did it without recasting the discriminatory legislation and without adopting egalitarian laws, while formulating essential reservations against women's rights in the family and towards children in the name of Islamic sharia laws. These reservations constitute a drawback for the unity and universality of human rights, as well as a violation of equality between the sexes, and objective aimed at reaching by the Convention thus-named. The feminist movements that have appeared since the eighties have called on the States to lift the reservations that go against the entire recognition of women's rights in public and private spaces without exception. Many national, regional and international campaigns have been organised and have led certain States to lift some reservations, notably those that touch on granting nationality to women and their children. But many efforts remain to be done in order to lift all the reservations for the consecration of the universality of women's rights and egalitarian democracy within the family.
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Hafidha Chékir. Le combat pour les droits des femmes dans le monde arabe. 2014. ⟨halshs-01005544⟩

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