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Spatial heterogeneity of the risk of BSE in France following the ban of meat and bone meal in cattle feed.

Abstract : In France, meat-and-bone meal (MBM) has been prohibited for cattle feeding since 1990, but bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) cases, called 'NAIF', appeared in animals born after this feed ban. Furthermore, in 1996 a new measure was taken: removal of cadavers and specified risk materials (SRM) from the processing of MBM dedicated to animal feed. Nevertheless, BSE cases (called 'super-NAIF') appeared in cattle born after this measure was in force. We analysed the spatial distribution of 445 'NAIF' and 58 'super-NAIF' cases detected in France from July 1, 2001 to July 31, 2003. The detection of BSE was based both on the mandatory reporting system (MRS) and the systematic test screening of cattle at the abattoir and at the fallen-animal plant with rapid tests. The background population was based on the adult-cow census. The disease mapping of the BSE risk was based on the standardised incidence ratio (stochastic Poisson process). A spatial component, which takes into account the spatial dependence between the geographical units by a notion of adjacency was used to eliminate the over-dispersion in the risk assessment. The geographical units were defined by hexagons with a side of 23km (France had 1264 hexagons). The parameters were estimated by a Metropolis Gibbs sampling algorithm using the Markov-chain Monte Carlo methods. The BSE cases were not randomly distributed. Furthermore, the areas at risk for the 'super-NAIF' matched part of the areas at risk for the 'NAIF' cases-which suggests that it might be a common source of contamination.
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David Abrial, Didier Calavas, Nathalie Jarrige, Christian Ducrot. Spatial heterogeneity of the risk of BSE in France following the ban of meat and bone meal in cattle feed.. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Elsevier, 2005, 67 (1), pp.69-82. ⟨10.1016/j.prevetmed.2004.10.004⟩. ⟨hal-02681299⟩



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