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Un cadre conceptuel pour penser maintenant (et organiser demain) la transition agroécologique de l'agriculture dans les territoires

Abstract : The strong negative impacts of agriculture on the environment, combined with the energy crisis and the slowdown of the productivist model, has led to two forms of regreening of agriculture. One, called "weak ecological modernisation'' corresponds to the implementation of good agricultural practices that improve input efficiency. The other, called "strong ecological modernisation'' is based on ecosystem services provided by biodiversity. It corresponds to a paradigm shift due to the complexity in designing and implementing it. Strong ecologisation of agriculture requires to deeply revise farming systems, resource management at the territorial/landscape level, and the agrifood chain. After reviewing the principles underpinning this type of agriculture, we analyse the strengths and weaknesses of three conceptual frameworks (farming systems, socio-ecological systems and sociotechnical systems) with respect to this goal. We then propose an interdisciplinary multilevel conceptual framework integrating and articulating the three previous ones. It describes the nature of the system affected by this agroecological transition. This framework formalizes a system of actors whose behaviour is determined by formal and informal norms and agreements, interacting via technology, with farms, landscape and agrifood chain resources. This conceptual framework is intended to be used to analyse current agricultural systems at the territorial level and design strongly ecologised agricultural systems or "territorialized agroecological systems.'' In the following, we analyse the conditions for the implementation of the strong ecologisation of agriculture. We emphasize in particular the diversity of innovations to promote, the diversity of actors to coordinate, and therefore the need to implement a participatory, holistic, transdisciplinary and "localized'' (so called "territorialized'') design approach of the features of agroecological transition.
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Michel Duru, Mehand Fares, Olivier Therond. Un cadre conceptuel pour penser maintenant (et organiser demain) la transition agroécologique de l'agriculture dans les territoires. Cahiers Agricultures, EDP Sciences, 2014, 23 (2), pp.84-95. ⟨10.1684/agr.2014.0691⟩. ⟨hal-02636186⟩

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