Changes in the rumen and colon microbiota and effects of live yeast dietary supplementation during the transition from the dry period to lactation of dairy cows

Abstract : The first objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics and their potential association with animal performance of the microbiota in both the rumen and colon of dairy cows as they move from a nonlactation to a lactation ration. The second objective was to assess the potential effects on the microbiota of live yeast supplementation. Twenty-one Holstein cows were split in 2 treatments consisting of 1 × 10 10 cfu/d of live yeast (LY; n = 10) or no supplementation (control; n = 11) starting 21 d before until 21 d after calving. At 14 d before and 7 and 21 d after calving, samples of rumen and colon digesta were obtained from each cow using an endoscope. Total DNA was extracted and submitted to high-throughput sequencing. Shannon diversity index, in both the rumen and colon, was unaffected by LY; however, in the rumen it was lowest 7 d after calving and returned to precalving values at 21 d in milk, whereas in the colon it was greatest 14 d before calving but decreased after calving. In the rumen, LY supplementation increased the relative abundance (RA) of Bacteroidales (group UCG-001), Lachnospira-cea (groups UCG-002 and UCG-006), and Flexilinea 14 d before calving, and increased RA of Streptococcus 21 d after calving compared with control cows. However, changes in the ruminal microbiota were more drastic across days relative to calving than as influenced by the dietary treatment, and the effect of LY in the colon was milder than in the rumen. The ruminal RA of several genera was associated with postcalving DMI, and that of Gastranaerophilales was the only order positively associated with milk yield. Several genera were positively correlated with feed efficiency, with Clostridiales (un-classified) being the only genus negatively associated with feed efficiency. In the colon, Prevotellaceae (group Ga6A1) was the only genus positively associated with feed efficiency. The ruminal RA of Prevotella 7 and Ruminobacter 14 d precalving was negatively correlated with dry matter intake and milk yield postcalving. The RA of Parabacteroides in the colon 14 d before calving was negatively correlated with milk yield, whereas the RA of Eggerthellaceae (unclassified) and Erysipelotrichaceae (groups c and unclassified) were positively correlated with feed efficiency. Interestingly, LY supplementation doubled the RA of Eggerthella-ceae (unclassified) in the colon. It is concluded that microbial diversity in the rumen experiences a transient reduction after calving, whereas in the colon, the reduction is maintained at least until 21 d in milk. Most of the effects of LY on rumen microbiota were observed before calving, whereas in the colon, LY effects were more moderate but consistent and independent of the stage of production. The microbial community of the rumen after calving is more associated with feed intake, milk yield, and feed efficiency than that of the colon. However, the colon microbiota before calving is more associated with feed efficiency after calving than that of the rumen.
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Submitted on : Monday, November 4, 2019 - 8:02:04 AM
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A. Bach, A. López-García, O. González-Recio, G. Elcoso, F. Fàbregas, et al.. Changes in the rumen and colon microbiota and effects of live yeast dietary supplementation during the transition from the dry period to lactation of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, American Dairy Science Association, 2019, 102 (7), pp.6180-6198. ⟨10.3168/jds.2018-16105⟩. ⟨hal-02335754⟩

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