Concevoir une « bonne » alimentation Les pratiques alimentaires des expéditeurs polaires

Abstract : In a research program on management of extreme situations (Lièvre 2016), we study the practices of polar expeditions’ members from the idea of the expedition project to its end. In so doing, we follow the « Practice turn » (Schatzki, Knorr Cetina & Savigny 2001). In this kind of expedition project, the food is not a secondary issue: it is a determining factor of performance. First, we emphasise that the food issues are important from the beginning of the polar expedition’s history. Then, we present a study of food practices from ten contemporary expeditions. This study shows how three different principles are combined, but also in tension to one another. There are three kinds of principles. The first principle is to preserve a constant body composition; this principle is based on scientific knowledge especially in nutrition and in physiology. The second and the third principles emerge from practical knowledge: the principle of controlling the weight and the volume of the food and the principle of appetite and taste. From these principles, we are enable to propose a model in order to assist in nutrition design for a polar expedition (Lièvre 2004). However, this model is still incomplete in so far as it doesn’t consider the issue of the “good” nutrition which is about the normativity (Canguilhem 2007). We have identified four normativities revealing four styles of expeditions: the sporting achievement, the exploration and the discovery, the pleasure of skiing, the passion for science. According to the nomativity at work, the importance of each principle will be different. These two propositions, considering the three principles in tension and the four different normativities, represent some knowledge of action for polar expeditions’ members in order to design their own nutrition.
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Pascal Lièvre, Géraldine Rix-Lièvre, Michel Récopé. Concevoir une « bonne » alimentation Les pratiques alimentaires des expéditeurs polaires. Techniques et culture, Éditions de la Maison des sciences de l'homme 2018. ⟨hal-01810885⟩

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