E. Aarts, J. Korst, and W. Michiels, Simulated annealing Search methodologies, pp.2014-265

R. A. Abbaspour and F. Samadzadegan, An evolutionary solution for multimodal shortest path problem in metropolises, Computer Science and Information Systems, vol.7, issue.4, pp.789-811, 2010.
DOI : 10.2298/CSIS090710024A

H. Ayed and D. Khadraoui, Transfer Graph Approach for Multimodal Transport Problems, Second International Conference MCO, 2008.
DOI : 10.1109/HICSS.2005.30

H. Bast, Route Planning in Transportation Networks, 2015.
DOI : 10.1007/3-540-44676-1_3

S. Behzadi and A. Alesheikh, Developing a Genetic Algorithm for Solving Shortest Path Problem, NEW ASPECTS OF URBAN PLANNING AND TRANSPORTATION, 2008.

B. Chakraborty, Simultaneous multiobjective multiple route selection using GA for car navigation. Pattern Recognition and Machine Intelligence, pp.696-701, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/11590316_112

B. Chakraborty, GA-Based Multiple Route Selection for Car Navigation Applied Computing, pp.76-83, 2004.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-540-30176-9_10

P. Civicioglu and E. Besdok, A conceptual comparison of the Cuckoo-search, particle swarm optimization, differential evolution and artificial bee colony algorithms, Artificial Intelligence Review, vol.217, issue.7, pp.315-346, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.amc.2010.08.049

C. Cotta, Handbook of memetic algorithms, Ferrante Neri, and Pablo Moscato, 2012.

H. W. Corley and I. D. Moon, Shortest paths in networks with vector weights, Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, vol.22, issue.1, pp.79-86, 1985.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00938761

C. Davies and P. Lingras, Genetic algorithms for rerouting shortest paths in dynamic and stochastic networks, European Journal of Operational Research, vol.144, issue.1, pp.27-38, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0377-2217(01)00354-X

D. Delling, T. Pajor, and . D. Wagner, Accelerating Multi-modal Route Planning by Access-Nodes, 17th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA'09), 2009.
DOI : 10.1090/dimacs/074/03

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

K. Deb, A fast and elitist multiobjective genetic algorithm: NSGA-II, IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, vol.6, issue.2, pp.182-197, 2002.
DOI : 10.1109/4235.996017

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

M. R. Delavar, F. Samadzadegan, and P. Pahlavani, A GIS-assisted optimal urban route finding approach based on genetic algorithms. Dept. of Surveying and Geometrics, Faculty of Engineering, 2001.

O. Dib, M. Manier, and A. Caminada, Memetic Algorithm for Computing Shortest Paths in Multimodal Transportation Networks, Transportation Research Procedia, vol.10, pp.745-755, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.trpro.2015.09.028

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01520123

O. Dib, M. Manier, and A. Caminada, A Hybrid Metaheuristic for Routing in Road Networks, 2015 IEEE 18th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2015.
DOI : 10.1109/ITSC.2015.129

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01520124

O. Dib, Combining VNS with Genetic Algorithm to solve the one-to-one routing issue in road networks, Computers & Operations Research, vol.78, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cor.2015.11.010

E. Pyrga, F. Schulz, D. Wagner, and C. , Zaroliagis Efficient Models for Timetable Information in Public, Transportation Systems ACM Journal on Experimental Algorithms, vol.12, issue.24, p.39, 2007.

E. Pyrga, F. Schulz, D. Wagner, and C. Zaroliagis, Efficient models for timetable information in public transportation systems, Journal of Experimental Algorithmics, vol.12, issue.24, pp.1-39, 2008.
DOI : 10.1145/1227161.1227166

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

M. Gen, R. Cheng, and D. Wang, Genetic algorithms for solving shortest path problems, Proceedings of 1997 IEEE International Conference on Evolutionary Computation (ICEC '97), pp.401-406, 1997.
DOI : 10.1109/ICEC.1997.592343

F. Glover and M. Laguna, Tabu Search *, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01412610

H. W. Hamacher, S. Ruzika, and S. A. Tjandra, Algorithms for time-dependent bicriteria shortest path problems, Discrete Optimization, vol.3, issue.3, pp.238-254, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.disopt.2006.05.006

URL : http://doi.org/10.1016/j.disopt.2006.05.006

P. Hansen and N. Mladenovi?, Variable neighborhood search Search methodologies, pp.313-337, 2014.

H. H. Hochmair, Grouping of optimized pedestrian routes for multi-modal route planning: a comparison of two cities. The European Information Society, pp.339-358, 2008.

B. Huang and R. L. Cheu, GIS and genetic algorithms for HAZMAT route planning with security considerations, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, vol.9, issue.8, pp.769-787, 2004.
DOI : 10.1068/a34109

T. Ikeda, A fast algorithm for finding better routes by AI search techniques, Proceedings of VNIS'94, 1994 Vehicle Navigation and Information Systems Conference, 1994.
DOI : 10.1109/VNIS.1994.396824

R. Kumar and M. Kumar, Reliable and Efficient Routing Using Adaptive Genetic Algorithm in Packet Switched Networks, IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, vol.91, pp.1694-0814, 2012.

D. Kumar, M. Rakesh, and . Kumar, Exploring Genetic algorithm for shortest path optimization in data networks, Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology, vol.10, p.11, 2010.

L. Liu and L. Meng, Algorithms of Multi-Modal Route Planning Based on the Concept of Switch Point, Photogrammetrie - Fernerkundung - Geoinformation, vol.2009, issue.5, pp.431-444, 2009.
DOI : 10.1127/1432-8364/2009/0031

E. Q. Martins, On a multicriteria shortest path problem, European Journal of Operational Research, vol.16, issue.2, pp.236-245, 1984.
DOI : 10.1016/0377-2217(84)90077-8

P. Modesti and A. Sciomachen, A utility measure for finding multiobjective shortest paths in urban multimodal transportation networks, European Journal of Operational Research, vol.111, issue.3, pp.495-508, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0377-2217(97)00376-7

T. Pajor, Multi-modal route planning, 2009.

E. Pyrga, F. Schulz, D. Wagner, and C. Zaroliagis, Towards Realistic Modeling of Time-Table Information through the Time-Dependent Approach, Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, vol.92, pp.85-103, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.entcs.2003.12.024

A. J. Skriver and K. A. Andersen, A label correcting approach for solving bicriterion shortest path problems. ? Comput, Oper. Res, vol.27, issue.6, pp.507-524, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/s0305-0548(99)00037-4

M. Steadieseifi, Multimodal freight transportation planning: A literature review European journal of operational research 233 Data model and algorithms for multimodal route planning with transportation networks, pp.1-15, 2011.

S. Baswana, S. Biswas, B. Doerr, T. Friedrich, P. P. Kurur et al., Computing single source shortest paths using single-objective fitness, Proceedings of the tenth ACM SIGEVO workshop on Foundations of genetic algorithms, FOGA '09, pp.59-66, 2009.
DOI : 10.1145/1527125.1527134

. Talbi, A unified taxonomy of hybrid metaheuristics with mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learningHybrid Metaheuristics, pp.2013-2016

R. Van-nes, Design of multimodal transport networks: a hierarchical approach, 2002.

M. Wang, Optimal paths based on Time and fare in transit network, 2008.

S. Yaseen and N. Ghaleb, Ant colony optimization, p.351, 2008.

L. Zhang, J. Q. Li, and K. Zhou, Design and implementation of a traveler in-formation tool with integrated real-time transit information and multi-modal trip planning, Transportation Research Board 2011 Annual Meeting, 2011.

K. G. Zografos, . Androutsopoulos, N. Konstantinos, . Spitadakis, and . Vassilis, Design and Assessment of an Online Passenger In-formation System for Integrated Multimodal Trip Planning, IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, issue.102, pp.311-15249050, 2009.