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Influence of phytosterol and phytostanol food supplementation on plasma liposoluble vitamins and provitamin A carotenoid levels in humans: An updated review of the evidence.

Abstract : Phytosterols and phytostanols (PAP) compete with cholesterol absorption in the intestine, resulting in a 5-15%-reduction in plasma total and LDL cholesterol. An important issue is the PAP potential to reduce the plasma concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins and provitamin A carotenoids. Here, an update of the scientific evidence is reviewed to evaluate plant PAP-enriched foods impact on plasma fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoid levels, and to discuss potential implications in terms of cardiovascular risk. Based on 49 human interventional and 3 bioavailability studies, results showed that regular consumption, particularly over the long term, of foods fortified with PAP as recommended in labelling does not significantly impact plasma vitamins A, D and K concentration. A 10% significant median reduction was observed for α-tocopherol. Concerning carotenoids, while 13 studies did not demonstrate statistically significant plasma β-carotene reduction, 20 studies showed significant reductions, with median effect size of -24%. This decline can be mitigated or offset by increased fruits and vegetables consumption. Furthermore, higher cardiovascular risk was observed for differences in plasma β-carotene concentration of the same magnitude as the estimated average decrease by PAP consumption. These results are supported by the only study of β-carotene bioavailability showing decrease in absorption by phytosterols daily intake.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, April 12, 2017 - 10:45:00 AM
Last modification on : Friday, August 5, 2022 - 2:38:10 PM

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Anthony Fardet, Anne Morise, Esther Kalonji, Irène Margaritis, François Mariotti. Influence of phytosterol and phytostanol food supplementation on plasma liposoluble vitamins and provitamin A carotenoid levels in humans: An updated review of the evidence.. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Taylor & Francis, 2017, 57 (9), pp.1906-1921. ⟨10.1080/10408398.2015.1033611⟩. ⟨hal-01506623⟩

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