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[hal-01422586] Multi-cultural Wikipedia mining of geopolitics interactions leveraging reduced Google matrix analysis (05/06/2020)
Moins

Geopolitics focuses on political power in relation to geographic space. Interactions among world countries have been widely studied at various scales, observing economic exchanges, world history or international politics among others. This work exhibits the potential of Wikipedia mining for such studies. Indeed, Wikipedia stores valuable fine-grained dependencies among countries by linking webpages together for diverse types of interactions (not only related to economical, political or historical facts). We mine herein the Wikipedia networks of several language editions using the recently proposed method of reduced Google matrix analysis. This approach allows to establish direct and hidden links between a subset of nodes that belong to a much larger directed network. Our study concentrates on 40 major countries chosen worldwide. Our aim is to offer a multicultural perspective on their interactions by comparing networks extracted from five different Wikipedia language editions, emphasizing English, Russian and Arabic ones. We demonstrate that this approach allows to recover meaningful direct and hidden links among the 40 countries of interest.

[hal-02611821] Large amplitude electromagnetic solitons in a fully relativistic magnetized electron-positron-pair plasma (16/06/2020)
Plus

Nonlinear propagation of purely stationary large amplitude electromagnetic (EM) solitary waves in a magnetized electron-positron (EP) plasma is studied using a fully relativistic two-fluid hydrodynamic model which accounts for physical regimes of both weakly relativistic $(P\ll nmc^2)$ and ultrarelativistic $(P\gg nmc^2)$ random thermal energies. Here, $P$ is the thermal pressure, $n$ the number density and $m$ the mass of a particle, and $c$ is the speed of light in vacuum. Previous theory in the literature [Phys. Plasmas \textbf{11}, 3078 (2004)] is advanced and generalized by the relativistic thermal motion of both electrons and positrons. While both the sub-Alfv{\'e}nic and super-Alfv{\'e}nic solitons coexist in the weakly relativistic regime, the ultrarelativistic EP plasmas in contrast support only the sub-Alfv{\'e}nic solitons. Different limits of the Mach numbers and soliton amplitudes are also examined in these two physical regimes.

[hal-02534927] Chaos-assisted tunneling resonances in a synthetic Floquet superlattice (08/04/2020)
Plus

The field of quantum simulation, which aims at using a tunable quantum system to simulate another, has been developing fast in the past years as an alternative to the all-purpose quantum computer. In particular, the use of temporal driving has attracted a huge interest recently as it was shown that certain fast drivings can create new topological effects, while a strong driving leads to e.g. Anderson localization physics. In this work, we focus on the intermediate regime to observe a quantum chaos transport mechanism called chaos-assisted tunneling which provides new possibilities of control for quantum simulation. Indeed, this regime generates a rich classical phase space where stable trajectories form islands surrounded by a large sea of unstable chaotic orbits. This mimics an effective superlattice for the quantum states localized in the regular islands, with new controllable tunneling properties. Besides the standard textbook tunneling through a potential barrier, chaos-assisted tunneling corresponds to a much richer tunneling process where the coupling between quantum states located in neighboring regular islands is mediated by other states spread over the chaotic sea. This process induces sharp resonances where the tunneling rate varies by orders of magnitude over a short range of parameters. We experimentally demonstrate and characterize these resonances for the first time in a quantum system. This opens the way to new kinds of quantum simulations with long-range transport and new types of control of quantum systems through complexity.

[hal-02531313] Quantum mechanics-based signal and image denoising (13/06/2020)
Plus

Decomposition of digital signals and images into other basis or dictionaries than time or space domains is a very common approach in signal and image processing and analysis. Such a decomposition is commonly obtained using fixed transforms (e.g., Fourier or wavelet) or dictionaries learned from example databases or from the signal or image itself. In this work, we investigate in detail a new approach of constructing such a signal or image-dependent bases inspired by quantum mechanics tools, i.e., by considering the signal or image as a potential in the discretized Schroedinger equation. To illustrate the potential of the proposed decomposition, denoising results are reported in the case of Gaussian, Poisson and speckle noise and compared to state of the art algorithms based on wavelet shrinkage, total variation regularization or patch-wise sparse coding in learned dictionaries.

[hal-02525689] Properties of phonon modes of an ion-trap quantum computer in the Aubry phase (01/04/2020)
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[hal-02516739] Jaynes-Cummings model under monochromatic driving (09/04/2020)
Plus

We study analytically and numerically the properties of Jaynes-Cummings model under monochromatic driving. The analytical results allow to understand the regime of two branches of multi-photon excitation in the case of close resonance between resonator and driven frequencies. The rotating wave approximation allows to reduce the description of original driven model to an effective Jaynes-Cummings model with strong coupling between photons and qubit. The analytical results are in a good agreement with the numerical ones even if there are certain deviations between the theory and numerics in the close vicinity of the resonance. We argue that the rich properties of driven Jaynes-Cummings model represent a new area for experimental investigations with superconducting qubits and other systems.

[hal-02513466] Thermoelectricity Modeling with Cold Dipole Atoms in Aubry Phase of Optical Lattice (25/03/2020)
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[hal-02482438] Crisis contagion in the world trade network (28/02/2020)
Plus

We present a model of worldwide crisis contagion based on the Google matrix analysis of the world trade network obtained from the UN Comtrade database. The fraction of bankrupted countries exhibits an \textit{on-off} phase transition governed by a bankruptcy threshold $\kappa$ related to the trade balance of the countries. For $\kappa>\kappa_c$, the contagion is circumscribed to less than 10\% of the countries, whereas, for $\kappa<\kappa_c$, the crisis is global with about 90\% of the countries going to bankruptcy. We measure the total cost of the crisis during the contagion process. In addition to providing contagion scenarios, our model allows to probe the structural trading dependencies between countries. For different networks extracted from the world trade exchanges of the last two decades, the global crisis comes from the Western world. In particular, the source of the global crisis is systematically the Old Continent and The Americas (mainly US and Mexico). Besides the economy of Australia, those of Asian countries, such as China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand, are the last to fall during the contagion. Also, the four BRIC are among the most robust countries to the world trade crisis.

[hal-02482347] Electron pairing by Coulomb repulsion in narrow band structures (17/06/2020)
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We study analytically and numerically dynamics and eigenstates of two electrons with Coulomb repulsion on a tight-binding lattice in one and two dimensions. The total energy and momentum of electrons are conserved and we show that for a certain momentum range the dynamics is exactly reduced to an evolution in an effective narrow energy band where the energy conservation forces the two electrons to propagate together through the whole system at moderate or even weak repulsion strength. We argue that such a mechanism of electron pair formation by the repulsive Coulomb interaction is rather generic and that it can be at the origin of unconventional superconductivity in twisted bilayer graphene.

[hal-02469377] Wikipedia network analysis of cancer interactions and world influence (27/02/2020)
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[hal-02469350] Interactions of pharmaceutical companies with world countries, cancers and rare diseases from Wikipedia network analysis (27/02/2020)
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[hal-02379093] Adaptive transform via quantum signal processing: application to signal and image denoising (14/06/2020)
Plus

The main scope of this paper is to show how tools from quantum mechanics, in particular the Schroedinger equation, can be used to construct an adaptive transform suitable for signal and image processing applications. The proposed dictionary is obtained by considering the signal or image as a discrete potential in Schroedinger equation, further used to construct the Hamiltonien operator. In order to illustrate its practical interest in signal and image processing, we provide denoising results in the case of signal-dependent noise, which is the noise type the most adapted to the proposed approach.

[hal-02338655] Thermoelectric properties of Wigner crystal in two-dimensional periodic potential (12/03/2020)
Plus

We study numerically transport and thermoelectric properties of electrons placed in a two-dimensional (2D) periodic potential. Our results show that the transition from sliding to pinned phase takes place at a certain critical amplitude of lattice potential being similar to the Aubry transition for the one-dimensional Frenkel-Kontorova model. We show that the 2D Aubry pinned phase is characterized by high values of Seebeck coefficient S = 12. At the same time we find that the value of Seebeck coefficient is significantly influenced by the geometry of periodic potential. We discuss possibilities to test the properties of 2D Aubry phase with electrons on a surface of liquid helium.

[hal-02303069] Quench, thermalization and residual entropy across a non-Fermi liquid to Fermi liquid transition (01/07/2020)
Plus

We study the thermalization, after sudden and slow quenches, in an interacting model having a quantum phase transition from a Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) non-Fermi liquid (NFL) to a Fermi liquid (FL). The model has SYK fermions coupled to noninteracting lead fermions and can be realized in a graphene flake connected to external leads. A sudden quench to the NFL leads to rapid thermalization via collapse-revival oscillations of the quasiparticle residue of the lead fermions. In contrast, the quench to the FL shows multiple prethermal regimes and much slower thermalization. In the slow quench performed over a time τ, we find that the excitation energy generated has a remarkable intermediate-τ nonanalytic power-law dependence, τ−η with η<1, which seemingly masks the dynamical manifestation of the initial residual entropy of the SYK fermions. Our study gives an explicit demonstration of the intriguing contrasts between the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of a NFL and a FL in terms of their thermalization and approach to adiabaticity.

[hal-02302961] Riemann surfaces for KPZ with periodic boundaries (01/07/2020)
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The Riemann surface for polylogarithms of half-integer index, which has the topology of an infinite dimensional hypercube, is studied in relation to one-dimensional KPZ universality in finite volume. Known exact results for fluctuations of the KPZ height with periodic boundaries are expressed in terms of meromorphic functions on this Riemann surface, summed over all the sheets of a covering map to an infinite cylinder. Connections to stationary large deviations, particle-hole excitations and KdV solitons are discussed.

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