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Theses

Le vécu subjectif des apprentis en situation professionnelle comme ressource en apprentissage

Abstract : Apprenticeship is a system that combines work-study training with training provided in an apprenticeship training center (ATC). Some authors highlight the minimal collaboration between these two teaching times by describing it as a simple juxtaposition (Besson, Collin, Geay, & Hahn, 2005; Geay & Sallaberry, 1999; Ulmann, 2018). Thus, ATC trainers do not make sufficient use of the in-company sequence. There are two reasons for this. On the one hand, trainers do not have a method of analyzing work activity that allows them to consider the reference to actual work situations as a potential for the development of apprentices, and on the other hand, the institution, which aims above all at graduation, requires a tighter focus on training content by giving priority to what is prescribed in the competence reference frame (Olry & Vidal-Gomel, 2011; Olry & Masson, 2012). The proposal made in this research is to provide ATC trainers with a method of activity analysis by seeking theoretical insights from professional didactics (PD), psychophenomenology (Vermersch, 2012) and cognitive social theory (CST) (Bandura, 2007). Indeed, the PD, which "defines a way of thinking about the issues at stake in the relationship between work, learning and training" (Mayen, 2012, p. 62), proposes to highlight work situations and "the links between their characteristics, activity and the subject's potential development at work" (Olry & Vidal-Gomel, 2011, p. 125). For its part, psychophenomenology offers, with the Explanation Interview (Ede), an interesting tool that makes it possible to document in detail the past activity through verbalization. Thus, the Ede allows a subject to put into words, after the fact, the unfolding of his own action in order to bring out its implicit elements (Maurel, 2008). It values information produced by the person himself concerning his own experience (Vermersch & Maurel, 1997). Finally, CST offers the possibility of considering the notion of development from the perspective of a self-efficacy, i.e.: The individual's belief in his or her ability to organize and execute the course of action required to produce desired results (Bandura, 2007, p. 12). In education and training, numerous empirical studies conclude that self-efficacy has significant effects on the engagement, performance and training trajectory of learners and teachers. Indeed, there is a strong relationship between self-efficacy, performance and persistence among learners of all ages. He is a good predictor of academic performance, choice of program and career choices (Bouffard-Bouchard & Pinard, 1988; Beaumont, Frenette, Gaudreau, & Royer, 2012; Galand & Vanlede, 2004). In this thesis, the hypothesis that a system of professional practice analysis based on the explanation interview (i.e., professionalization workshops) has an impact on self-efficacy of ATC trainers and their apprentices is put forward. The scientific challenge is therefore to document the impact of this training modality, which uses the action implemented and then explained afterwards, on the development of the actors of a ATC. This hypothesis is tested with a quasi-experimental design. Thus, during a school year, 5 trainers and their 32 apprentices (identified as the experimental group) use a training modality with professionalization workshops (Faingold, 2014), while 8 other trainers and their 37 apprentices (identified as the control group) use a usual training modality, i.e. without professionalization workshops. The self-efficacy scores of each group are measured in pretest and post-test using a dedicated personal effectiveness scale and then an analysis of variance (ANOVA) is performed to compare the variance of the mean scores of these groups after the intervention. While this quasi-experimental design does not confirm the impact of professionalization workshops on trainers' ATCs, it does show statistically significant results among apprentices. Thus, self-efficacy of both groups of apprentices varies between the pretest and post-test. Indeed, the experimental group's rate of progress is increasing while the control group's rate is decreasing. The mixed ANOVA applied to the variance of the mean scores confirms a significant interaction effect, F(1.67)= 7.99; p =.006 and an average effect size of the professionalization workshops (Faingold, 2014) on self-efficacy of apprentices d =.53 (Cohen, 1988). This thesis is part of the field of activity analysis in context, with a particular interest in subjectivity and its exploitation as a training resource. First, it offers ATC trainers, through the explanation interview, a method of analyzing the activity that shows significant results on self-efficacy of their apprentices. Then, from a professional didactic perspective (Pastré and al., 2006), it offers, through professionalization workshops, a protocol that puts the work situation at the center of the concerns of trainers and apprentices. Finally, it has strong implications for the integration of young Martinican people. Indeed, significantly confirming its ability to influence self-efficacy of learners, the professionalization workshops constitute an interesting support point for the development of certain individual characteristics that are valued in the world of work
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Submitted on : Thursday, July 8, 2021 - 5:39:36 PM
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Pierre Lecefel. Le vécu subjectif des apprentis en situation professionnelle comme ressource en apprentissage. Education. Université des antilles (UA) - Site de Guadeloupe, FRA, 2019. Français. ⟨tel-03282161⟩

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