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Imaginaire et futur de la mobilité dans les quartiers informels d'Amérique du Sud. Rio de Janeiro (Brésil) et Medellín (Colombie)

Abstract : In the 1990s, informal settlements in South America are officially recognized as constitutive entities of the city. A series of public transport infrastructures is then implanted to integrate these enclaved settlements with the rest of the city. The implementation of conventional systems having been prevented by the strong declivity of the sites, innovative solutions like cable car, funicular, elevator and escalators are imagined. Connecting these territories to the city's public transport network and reducing internal travel times, the Medellín Metrocable (2004) and the Alemão Complex cable car in Rio de Janeiro (2011) improve (in part) the mobility conditions of the inhabitants. However, we note that the many expropriations and relocations that these state projects generate, lead some of the population to oppose the realization of other projects of the same type. So, can we consider that the establishment of this type of infrastructure ensures a more equal access to the city?The persistence of informal transport to operate in the Alemão Complex, despite the existence of the cable car, seems to run counter to this first hypothesis. Operated by motorcycle taxi and vehicles adapted to the transport of passengers (Van and Kombi type), this network is characterized by its ability to infiltrate the urban microscale, while relaying mass transport. This principle of complementarity irrigates homogeneously the global and local scales of the city. However, is the rhizomic irrigation of the territory in transport a condition inherent to the right to mobility and the right to the city? Does it effectively fight sociospatial fragmentation and segregation? Does it define an urban strategy contributing to a more sustainable development of cities?The research assumes that the recognition of the informal neighborhoods as constitutive entities of the city would not be realized by a traditional urbanization process for their integration, but rather by the preservation of their specific urban condition and the self-organizational systems which govern them. The fight against social segregation would not necessarily involve the fight against spatial fragmentation, in that the diversity of the disparate entities that constitute contemporary cities can be considered as a necessary added value in order to imagine their futures. The study of the south american context revealed in this sense that the reinforcement of a certain degree of autonomy of these neighborhoods, in economic, cultural, educational, and other terms, was an additional way to act in favor of their integration, without imposing a top-down vision that is not adapted to the local context.
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Camille Reiss. Imaginaire et futur de la mobilité dans les quartiers informels d'Amérique du Sud. Rio de Janeiro (Brésil) et Medellín (Colombie). Art et histoire de l'art. Université Paris-Est; Universidade federal do Rio de Janeiro, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020PESC1022⟩. ⟨tel-03136555⟩

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