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La prise en compte des fonctionnalités écologiques dans l’aménagement du territoire et l’application de la séquence Éviter–Réduire–Compenser. De l’échelle projet à la planification

Abstract : Over the past decades, biodiversity erosion has speeded up and become a global environmental concern since. Anthropization has led to. The mitigation hierarchy (avoidance, reduction and offsetting of impacts) is a regulatory tool implemented in a context of habitat destruction and fragmentation, disrupting species’ life cycle. The objective is to achieve “no net loss” of biodiversity following urban development. Although biodiversity conservation regulations have recently better addressed ecosystem functioning, the mitigation hierarchy is still being implemented with little concern for the spatial configuration of ecosystems in the landscape. This thesis hypothesizes that the major difficulties encountered by stakeholders are, in part, methodological and technical. Situating our research at the knowledge-action interface, we propose a methodological framework based on several modeling approaches, to respond to the different scientific and operational challenges. This thesis joins forces with other scientific projects and stakeholders’ networks by exploring complementary axes. To this end, we first integrate spatio-temporal issues of biodiversity into overall mitigation hierarchy application, focusing on potential impacts and dimensioning at “territorial development project” scale through a case study on the new stadium in Lyon (Southern France). Combining species distributions models and spatial graphs improves habitat connectivity and therefore the design of the development projects. Next, we demonstrate the positive impacts on peri-urban habitat connectivity of pooling and anticipating offsets in the suburbs of Lyon. In the last part, we demonstrate the implications of an anticipated and planned approach to the mitigation hierarchy on a planning scale. We consider both ecological connectivity and urban dynamics, in an attempt to minimize the ecological impacts of urban sprawl by avoiding urbanization of areas of highest ecological value and then enhance the application of biodiversity offsetting. This method is tested on projections for the Toulouse conurbation (Southern France) by 2040. Thus, this thesis presents an overall approach that can help to increase habitat connectivity and to improve the design of territorial development projects at different spatial and temporal scales. This methodology is based on freeware available to all practitioners. It will serve planners, designers, and decision-makers needing to ensure that there are no significant or irreversible effects on biodiversity, and environmental authorities making sure that all environmental issues are taken into account in the design of development projects.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-03121247
Contributor : Simon Tarabon <>
Submitted on : Monday, February 8, 2021 - 11:05:22 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, May 4, 2021 - 10:10:04 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-03121247, version 2

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Simon Tarabon. La prise en compte des fonctionnalités écologiques dans l’aménagement du territoire et l’application de la séquence Éviter–Réduire–Compenser. De l’échelle projet à la planification. Biodiversité et Ecologie. Avignon Université, 2020. Français. ⟨tel-03121247v2⟩

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