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Démarche de conception multicritère de système de production d'énergie : application à une hydrolienne durable et résiliente pour micro-réseau isolé

Abstract : Everywhere, populations need energy to satisfy their needs and support their development. This work focuses on access to electrical energy in isolated areas that are too far from the main electricity grid to be connected to it. Among them, we select areas near a sea or river where hydrokinetic energy can be harnessed and transformed into electricity by a hydrokinetic turbine. The technological solutions available on the market only partially meet the specific needs of communities in these isolated areas. The objective of the thesis is twofold: to propose a multi-criteria design approach in order to imagine an energy production solution compatible with the challenges of sustainable development, and then to apply this approach to design a hydrokinetic turbine solution for isolated micro-grids that is sustainable and resilient. The design approach is based on the consideration of qualitative and quantitative criteria related to technical, economic, environmental and social sustainability from the upstream phases of the project. The proposed tool helps the designer to dialogue with the various stakeholders in order to target an electricity production solution that allows for human, economic, technical and community development that is both anchored in the territory and respectful of the environment. The application of the approach and the tool on the hydrokinetic turbine for isolated micro-grids leads to a sketch of the system and its components. We have been inspired by the low-tech philosophy that advocates simple, sustainable, resilient and accessible technologies. We sketched the characteristics of the turbine's electrical generator and then proposed a multi-physical analytical model and economic, environmental and cost analysis for an optimized pre-sizing. The machine is a squirrel-cage induction machine with a waterproof winding for open water cooling, a condenser bank for autonomous operation and an extended speed range. We have also studied the effects of the tooth-coiled winding on the asynchronous generator. Finally, we selected the Amazonian villages of French Guiana as a case study and in particular the CNRS research station of Nouragues. We apply the design approach and pre-size the generator with the available data with the objectives of maximizing the energy efficiency or minimizing the mass of the machine and the economic and environmental costs.
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https://theses.hal.science/tel-03102861
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Submitted on : Thursday, January 7, 2021 - 6:01:20 PM
Last modification on : Friday, March 25, 2022 - 9:40:56 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-03102861, version 1

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Kathleen Mallard. Démarche de conception multicritère de système de production d'énergie : application à une hydrolienne durable et résiliente pour micro-réseau isolé. Energie électrique. Université Grenoble Alpes [2020-..], 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020GRALT035⟩. ⟨tel-03102861⟩

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