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Rôle des cellules endothéliales avec mutation JAK2V617F et des polynucléaires neutrophiles dans la physiopathologie de la thrombose des néoplasies myéloprolifératives

Abstract : Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are acquired hematologic diseases of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) characterized by blood cell proliferation. An activating mutation of the protein JAK2 (JAK2V617F) has been identified in more than 50% of patients. The occurrence of arterial and venous thrombosis is one of the main complications during these diseases. We first studied the consequences of the presence of the JAK2V617F mutation in endothelial cells (EC) on the physiopathology of thrombosis. We used two complementary approaches, in vitro with the use of human venous endothelial cells, and in vivo with the use of a mouse model allowing the presence of the JAK2V617F mutation only in the endothelial compartment: the PDGFb-iCreERT2;JAK2V617F/WT model. We first observed that PDGFbiCreERT2; JAK2V617F/WT mice displayed a higher propensity for thrombosis. This increased thrombus formation was mediated by an increased leukocyte adhesion in presence of JAK2V617F EC, secondary to an increase in P-Selectin expression at their surface. This work made it possible to highlight a new mechanism of the physiopathology of thrombosis during JAK2V617F MPN. Then we studied neutrophils and the phenomenon of NETosis (formation of neutrophil extracellular traps or NET) during MPN. We demonstrated that NET formation was increased in a cohort of patients with MPN, such as indirect markers of NETosis (plasmatic DNA and MPO-DNA). We found that plasma MPO-DNA levels were higher in patients with a history of thrombosis compared to patients without. We confirmed these results using two different mouse models in which we also found increased NET formation. We found that NET formation was involved in the physiopathology of thrombosis, as DNAse administration resulted in a reduction of thrombosis occurrence. Finally, we demonstrated that JAK2V617F platelets stimulated NET formation by JAK2V617F neutrophils, suggesting collaboration of these two cell types during the physiopathology of thrombosis during MPN.
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Alexandre Guy. Rôle des cellules endothéliales avec mutation JAK2V617F et des polynucléaires neutrophiles dans la physiopathologie de la thrombose des néoplasies myéloprolifératives. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Bordeaux, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BORD0226⟩. ⟨tel-03017574⟩

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