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Rôles de l’autophagie dans l'homéostasie des cellules souches intestinales

Abstract : The renewal of the intestinal epithelium relies on the continuous proliferation of stem cells capable of regenerating the entire epithelium every 3 to 5 days. These intestinal stem cells (ISC) are thought to be the cell of origin for colorectal cancer. Thus, characterizing the mechanisms involved the protection of ISC against different stresses is key to understanding both intestinal homeostasis and tumor development. In tumoral tissue from mice predisposed to intestinal tumor development following the loss of the tumor suppressor gene Apc, our laboratory previously showed an upregulation of autophagy required for tumor growth. Our work aims to understand the role this catabolic mechanism in the homeostasis of ISC. To this end, we use genetically modified mouse models and intestinal organoid culture to study the effects of autophagy inhibition in intestinal homeostasis and in particular in ISC.We found that the inhibition of autophagy upon deletion of the gene Atg7 results in p53 activation and apoptosis of ISC specifically. The simultaneous deletion of Tp53 prevents the death of autophagy-deficient ISC. Moreover, over time, mice deficient for both Atg7 and Tp53 develop tumors, contrary to those deficient for either Atg7 or Tp53 alone. We therefore hypothesized that the inhibition of autophagy sensitizes ISC to p53-mediated apoptosis as a result of accumulated pro-tumorigenic damages. Transcriptomic analysis on sorted control or Atg7-deficient ISC revealed aterations in oxidative stress and DNA damage responses. Confirming these signatures, we observed DNA damages in autophagy-deficient crypts along with a defect in the repair of induced damages following irradiation. We additionally observed an accumulation of reactive oxygen species in autophagy-deficient ISC linked to a downregulation of the NRF2-mediated antioxidant response. Wide-spectrum antibiotic or antioxidant treatments improve the survival of autophagy-deficient ISC and support the contribution of both reactive oxygen species and the intestinal microbiota to the death of ISC. Our work therefore reveals we find an important function of autophagy in the integrity and maintenance of ISC by controlling reactive oxygen species, the microbial microenvironment and DNA repair pathways.
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Submitted on : Saturday, October 24, 2020 - 1:03:19 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-02977151, version 1

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Coralie Trentesaux. Rôles de l’autophagie dans l'homéostasie des cellules souches intestinales. Hépatologie et Gastroentérologie. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLS361⟩. ⟨tel-02977151⟩

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