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Évolution de la résistance aux insecticides au sein d’un complexe d’espèces de ravageurs dans un contexte d’invasion biologique : coût de la résistance et rôle de l’hybridation

Abstract : Bemisia tabaci is a major insect pest distributed worldwide because of its ability to transmit phytoviruses. Three whitefly species coexist in Reunion Island: the native species IO, and two exotic species MEAM1 and MED-Q, which successively invaded the island in 1997 and 2010. The main control strategy against these species is the use of insecticides, which can lead to the emergence of resistance. The main objective was to understand the evolution of the distribution of the whitefly species, with regards to their insecticide resistance in a context of interspecific hybridization. To this aim, whiteflies were sampled in 56 sites, genotyped at 11 microsatellite markers and for two kdr loci involved in pyrethroid resistance. Fifteen populations were phenotyped for resistance to pymetrozine and acetamiprid using bioassays, and the cost of acetamiprid resistance was evaluated in MEAM1 populations displaying different resistance levels. The two invasive species are mainly found in agroecosystems and both have kdr resistance mutations. Most of the MEAM1 populations were also found to be resistant to acetamiprid, pymetrozine or both pesticides. No fitness costs appeared to be associated with resistance to acetamiprid in MEAM1. On the contrary, the indigenous species IO was mainly sampled in non-crop areas, or at the edge of agrosystems. It has no pyrethroid resistance mutations and is sensitive to the insecticides tested. Finally, the interspecific hybridization (MEAM-IO) observed between IO and MEAM1 did not lead to the introgression of resistant mutations into the indigenous species, but possibly to the introgression of susceptibility in MEAM1.
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Alizée Taquet. Évolution de la résistance aux insecticides au sein d’un complexe d’espèces de ravageurs dans un contexte d’invasion biologique : coût de la résistance et rôle de l’hybridation. Sciences et techniques de l'agriculture. Université de la Réunion, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020LARE0014⟩. ⟨tel-02970321⟩

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