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Les enseignants du supérieur et l'écoulement interne d'un fluide : modélisation et contextualisation dans différentes disciplines et filières de formation en France et aux Etats-Unis

Abstract : Water network, blood circulation, sap flow in a tree are three phenomena studied in different disciplinary fields but all linked with an internal fluid flow. Our work deals with the teaching of such phenomena in undergraduate courses at the university level. Our work is situated within the Nature of Science (NOS) research field and deals with modeling and teachers. We use Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) as our theoretical framework in order to explore the knowledge teachers teach, particularly the strategies dimension. We analyze the structure of the models they introduce, and the empirical contexts and the modeling processes they propose. We also study the pedagogical contexts, especially the use of the history of science and the potential influence of the types of discipline and of training course on the practices. We use a methodology mixing qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis in this exploratory. We made 39 semi-structured interviews of Physics and biology teachers working in different training courses (generalist-engineering physics, technical physics and bio-medical) from 2 countries (France and the USA). We selected the 23 most structured interviews and we analyzed their responses using a grid that we created and refined. We tried to identify the institutional and personal dimensions of the teachers’ way of teaching by examining the similarities and differences among teachers’ families. We show that the ‘Biomedical’ family is homogene in terms of modeling and contextualizing contrary to the ‘generalist-engineering physics’ family and reveal no difference according to the country. We also show that authentic experiments and history of science are rarely introduced in teaching. Questioning teachers about unusual situations helped us to study their expertise.
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Clément Crastes. Les enseignants du supérieur et l'écoulement interne d'un fluide : modélisation et contextualisation dans différentes disciplines et filières de formation en France et aux Etats-Unis. Education. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLS401⟩. ⟨tel-02615270⟩

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