La contribution de la gestion communautaire des ressources pastorales à la résilience des communautés rurales post-soviétiques, le cas du Kirghizistan

Abstract : My research looked at pastoral resources and agropastoral systems after the implementation in 2009 of community-based pasture management over all the territory of Kyrgyzstan. I investigated how the community-based pasture management contributes to the resilience of rural communities. I used multiple embedded case-studies in order to comprehensively embrace the linkages between land-use, resource dynamics and governance. The case-studies were three rural municipalities and their pastures, which form socio-ecological systems. National level was also examined. Data-collection was conducted through extensive field-work in the rural communities, participant observation in NGOs implementing projects in the domain of pasture management at national level, and literature review. I used qualitative data analysis through thematization and basic statistic analysis for quantitative data. The theoretical framework combines the approach of Common-pool resource management by Ostrom (1990) and the resilience of spatial socio-ecological systems by Aschan-Leygonie (2000). Based on them I elaborated a qualitative framework to analyze the contribution of Community-Based Pasture Management (CBPM) on spatial resilience of socio-ecological systems. As pasture, I understand the pastures them-selves as well as all the other resources necessary for their use, e.g. water and access infrastructure. My results show that community-based management fails to create feed-back loops between the environment, the practices and the management measures. Pasture Committees do not carry out formal data collection on resource dynamics, neither on the impacts of use. Their actions merely follow pasture user interests which are potentially led by indigenous knowledge on pasture condition, although there is a need for more research on this point. However, in general, community-based pasture management positively affects the resilience of rural communities. First, by its open-nature, remote and marginalized households can take part in the decision-making. Second, the investment generated allows for repair and maintenance of infrastructure (roads, bridges) giving access to remote pasture, thereby limiting livestock concentration on most accessible pastures. Third, it creates interactions of a new type between agropastoral and non-agropastoral pasture users, as well as between local stakeholders and national-level stakeholders. Thus, community-based pasture management is a factor of the expansion of local socio-ecological systems and of the diversification and intensification of their interactions, within the systems, as well as across scales.
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Irène Mestre. La contribution de la gestion communautaire des ressources pastorales à la résilience des communautés rurales post-soviétiques, le cas du Kirghizistan. Géographie. Université Jean Moulin - Lyon III, 2019. Français. ⟨tel-02464471⟩

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