Analyse de données de métagénomique fonctionnelle par NMF pour la modélisation de la dégradation des fibres par le microbiote intestinal humain.

Abstract : The purpose of this work of thesis is to model the capacity of degradation of non-digestible polysaccharides by the human intestinal microbiote. To this end we exploit metagenomic data. We use abundances of nucleotide sequences in 1408 samples whose metabolic function are assigned by annotation against a database. The sequences are annotated with functional markers. Upon manual selection of 86 functional markers relevant to the activity of metabolisation of polysaccharides, we their abundances variation among the metagenomic samples are studied.We propose an ecological approach in modeling the human intestinal microbiote. We consider the intense functional selection of this ecosystem and assume that identical cluster of metabolic functions can be found in different proportions in every human gut microbiota. We propose the term of functional assembly as to account for spacial and temporal co-occurence of functional cluster. In practice, theses assemblies are determined by their composition and can be interpreted as combinations of functional traits aggregated at the levels of the cluster of microorganisms composing each assembly. Functional assemblies are inferred by the means of Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NMF). This method allows to determine the composition of functional assemblies and their abundance in each of the 1408 metagenomic sample.Furthermore, we exploit metabolic information from bibliographic resources and 190 microbial genomes in order to specify the composition of these functional assemblies. This information is translated in the form of a constraint.We find 4 assemblies by considering a consensus between various criteria. The use of metabolic information allow to interpret theses assemblies biologically. By exploiting the metadata of the 1408 samples, we observe a different behaviour for the samples coming from individuals suffering from Crohn disease. We validate this observation on external data.We proposed a reductionistic approach allowing to represent an important metabolic process at the level of the microbiota. We find a small number of 4 functional assemblies which are biologically likely and approach well the 1408 metagenomic samples.
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Sébastien Raguideau. Analyse de données de métagénomique fonctionnelle par NMF pour la modélisation de la dégradation des fibres par le microbiote intestinal humain.. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paris-Saclay, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLA027⟩. ⟨tel-02371280⟩

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