Mécanismes impliqués dans les phénomènes allodyniques des douleurs céphaliques : migraine et névralgie du trijumeau

Abstract : Migraine and trigeminal neuralgia are two separate cephalic pain characterized by allodynia. Allodynia is of intense interest because it is a way to explore mechanism of pain. Then our work helps to better understanding pathophysiology of these two pain cephalic diseases. -In migraine: During attacks, cutaneous allodynia can extend outside the head involving mosthly thermal modalities. In between attack migraine patients are also characterized by greater extracephalic temporal pain summation and hyperalgesia unrelative to headache frequency or medication intake. Extratrigeminal hyperalgesia and allodynia may be consequence of central sensitization of spinal dorsal horn neurol in relation to tonic descending facilitation of pain. Migraine patients have also impairment of DNIC but in opposite to pain facilitation, DNIC magnitude is changed by several conditions. Loss of DNIC may be driven by repetition of headache and could lead to allodynia extension during attacks. Medication overuse also improves migraine-induced DNIC impairment. Since improvement of DNIC is not able to offset central sensitization, pain facilitation and descending inhibitory input involve two separate and independent ways. Moreover medication overuse may promote the increasing of headache frequency acting on others brain structures than descending pain inhibition. - In trigeminal neuralgia: our current findings promote the possibility that small fibers lesions due to dental deafferentation are predisposing factors for classical trigeminal neuralgia. Patients with CTN have bilateral trigeminal pain hypersensitivity over the trigeminal region, suggesting a central sensitization process. The relationship between pain thresholds and number of dental deafferentations suggest a role of the peripheral input as a driving factor for inducing sensitization. This may have clinical implications in term of the spreading symptomatology, and may promote the development of pain symptoms. In contrast, as for the NVC, the dental deafferentation is only one of several (unknown) conditions that are necessary but not sufficient for trigeminal neuralgia. Even compression could be an aggravating factor of axonal damages; neurovascular contact could be a triggerpromoting excitability of healthy large myelinated fibers.
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Nathalie Guy-Renouil. Mécanismes impliqués dans les phénomènes allodyniques des douleurs céphaliques : migraine et névralgie du trijumeau. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012CLF1MM17⟩. ⟨tel-02356429⟩

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