Justicia municipal y justiciables en Guadalajara (1821-1846). Funcionamiento y alcance de una institución de proximidad en un periodo de transición

Abstract : The oral trials (juicios verbales) and conciliation which emerged in the judicial domain following the declaration of the 1812 Spanish Constitution, represented for many decades the lowest level of the Mexican judicial system. Although subjected to a number of modifications after the country’s independence, their essential characteristics were preserved: both processes were primarily attributed to local judges who required no legal training and received no remuneration. These judges performed an obligatory service for the benefit of the community (carga concejil). Such municipal justice, embodying judges from among the laypeople, is one of a number of elements that supports the description of the Mexican nineteenth century as a period of legal transition. In Guadalajara, two types of judge exist in oral trial judicial administration during the first half of the nineteenth century: alcaldes constitucionales and police officers (comisarios de policía). Their courts were the ordinary judicial institutions closest to the litigants in which various everyday conflicts were resolved, chiefly civil ones, but also criminal. While both categories of judge represented a paternal type of justice, minimally repressive and simple in its process, the police officers’ courts were less coercive and more open to negotiation. While these latter courts certainly possessed fewer powers than the alcaldes constitucionales regarding sanctions, in certain respects they nevertheless were more accessible to the litigants.
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Mercedes Verónica Vallejo Flores. Justicia municipal y justiciables en Guadalajara (1821-1846). Funcionamiento y alcance de una institución de proximidad en un periodo de transición. History. Université Paris 1 - Panthéon Sorbonne, 2017. Español. ⟨tel-02354721⟩

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