A contribution to the selection of suitable cells, scaffold and biomechanical environment for ligament tissue engineering

Abstract : Ligament tissue engineering offers a potential approach to recover or replace injured ligament. The three essential elements that have been investigated towards ligament regeneration consist in a suitable scaffold, an adapted cell source, and the supply of biomechanical/biochemical stimulations. In the current study, synthetic polymer poly (L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) and silk have been evaluated as suitable candidates to constitute an adapted scaffold. A series of multilayer braided scaffolds based on PLCL and silk, as well as an original silk/PLCL composite scaffold, have been developed and compared. The conducted physicochemical and biological characterizations have demonstrated that both PLCL and silk constitute adapted candidate material to form ligament scaffolds from the mechanical and biological points of view. Moreover, it has been observed that silk/PLCL composite scaffold resulted in adequate mechanical properties and biocompatibility, and therefore could constitute suitable candidate scaffolds for ligament tissue engineering. Both Wharton’s Jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) and Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have been evaluated to be cell source for ligament regeneration. MSCs behaviors including cell attachment, proliferation, migration and extracellular matrix synthesis have been investigated. In the present study, both MSCS showed a good biocompatibility to interact with PLCL and silk scaffolds. No significant differences have been detected between WJ-MSCs and BM-MSCs. Finally, the effect of biomechanical stimulation on MSCs differentiation towards ligament tissue has been carried out with a tension-torsion bioreactor. Although few cells were detected on scaffold after 7 days of stimulation, MSCs were observed to exhibit an elongated shape along the longitudinal direction of fibers, which may indicate that an adapted mechanical stimulation could promote MSC-scaffold constructs differentiation towards ligamentous tissue. As a conclusion, this study demonstrates the potential of WJ-MSCs and BM-MSCs combined with a new silk/PLCL composite scaffold towards ligament regeneration.
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Xing Liu. A contribution to the selection of suitable cells, scaffold and biomechanical environment for ligament tissue engineering. Biomaterials. Université de Lorraine, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0058⟩. ⟨tel-02348936⟩

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