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La méthode transcendentale chez Kant et Cassirer. Application à la théorie quantique

Abstract : This PhD thesis deals with Immanuel Kant's and Ernst Cassirer's philosophies of science, and their application to the history of physics, from Newtonian mechanics to quantum theory. The first part of the thesis (chapters 1 to 3) analyzes Kant's epistemology from the methodological point of view, and proposes graphical representations of its core notions according to Kant's trichotomic conception (matter, form, matter and form). The second part (chapters 4 to 6) studies the way Cassirer actualizes Kant's “transcendental method” and applies it to quantum mechanics. After an introduction showing the difficulty to apprehend Cassirer's encyclopedic work, the 1st chapter recalls the core notions of Kant's conception of knowledge, and discusses their Cassirerian interpretation. The 2nd ch. deals with Kant's conception of science as a set of knowledge, and shows the ambivalence of his method (representing the form of science), both "free" and "constraint". The 3rd ch. analyzes the "critique" as the method of science, and reveals the methodological presupposition of unicity of the epistemological foundation proposed by Kant. The 4th ch. presents Cassirer's general “functional” epistemology, shows how it both inherits and diverts from Kant's, and proposes both a “constitutive” and a “regulative” conceptualization of the Cassirerian a priori. The 5th ch. details Cassirer's interpretation of quantum mechanics, according to which “determinism” (i.e. causality) is preserved, and shows both its relevance (e.g. his constitutive interpretation of Heisenberg's relations) and its weakness (the excessive generality of his claim). The 6th ch. provides a “prospective” (in Friedman's sense) attempt to apply Cassirer's conception to the EPR argument, and concludes with its “negative utility” (in Kant's sense) with respect to Einstein's presuppositions of separability, local causality and completeness.
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Philippe Stamenkovic. La méthode transcendentale chez Kant et Cassirer. Application à la théorie quantique. Histoire, Philosophie et Sociologie des sciences. Université Paris Diderot (Paris 7), 2015. Français. ⟨tel-02292687⟩

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