Non-commutative gauge symmetry and pseudo-unitary diffusions

Abstract : This thesis is devoted to the study of two quite different questions, which are related by the tools that we used to study them. The first question is that of the definition of lattice gauge theories with a non-commutative structure group. Here, by non-commutative, we do not mean non-Abelian, but instead non-commutative in the general sense of non-commutative geometry. The second question is that of the behaviour of Brownian diffusions on non-compact matrix groups of a specific kind, namely groups of pseudo-orthogonal, pseudo-unitary or pseudo-symplectic matrices. In the first chapter, we investigate lattice and continuous quantum gauge theories on the Euclidean plane with a structure group that is replaced by a Zhang algebra. Zhang algebras are non-commutative analogues of groups and contain the class of Voiculescu's dual groups. We are interested in non-commutative analogues of random gauge fields, which we describe through the random holonomy that they induce. We propose a general definition of a holonomy field with Zhang gauge symmetry, and construct such a field starting from a quantum Lévy process on a Zhang algebra. As an application, we define higher dimensional generalizations of the so-called master field. In the second chapter, we study matricial approximations of higher dimensional master fields constructed in the previous chapter. These approximations (in non-commutative distribution) are obtained by extracting blocks of a Brownian unitary diffusion (with entries in the algebras of real, complex or quaternionic numbers) and letting the dimension of these blocks tend to infinity. We divide our study into two parts: in the first one, we extract square blocks while in the second one we allow rectangular blocks. In both cases, free probability theory appears as the natural framework in which the limiting distributions are most accurately described. In the last two chapters, we use tools introduced (Zhang algebras and coloured Brauer diagrams) in the first two ones to study Brownian motion on pseudo-unitary matrices in high dimensions. We prove convergence in non-commutative distribution of the pseudo-unitary Brownian motions we consider, to free with amalgamation semi-groups under the hypothesis of convergence of the normalized signature of the metric. In the split case, meaning that at least asymptotically the metric has as much negative directions as positive ones, the limiting distribution is that of a free L\'evy process, which is a solution of a free stochastic differential equation. We leave open the question of such a realization of the limiting distribution in the general case. In addition, we provide (intriguing) numerical evidences for the convergence of the spectral distribution of such random matrices and make two conjectures. At the end of the thesis, we prove asymptotic normality for the fluctuations.
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Nicolas Gilliers. Non-commutative gauge symmetry and pseudo-unitary diffusions. Mathematics [math]. Sorbonne Universites, UPMC University of Paris 6, 2019. English. ⟨tel-02271696⟩

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