Mobilité et combustibles domestiques en Pays Soninké (Sénégal)

Abstract : The soninké country is a migration zone. Massive men emigration to France has been entrenched since the 1960s. The resulting monetary inflow supports the migration of the soninke women toward Dakar and has a strong attraction for migratory flows from Baol and from the neighboring countries of Mali and Mauritania. This study proposes to analyze the effects of this mobility on the domestic energy situation in the soninke country. For that purpose, several methods have been combined to collect information. These include questionnaire surveys, wood fuel weighing, interviews and participative observations. The study reveals that the financial and social transfers affiliated to mobility, while exacerbating the use of firewood at the scale of concessions in the soninke area, generate and stimulate the consumption of butane gas and, to a lesser extent, of charcoal. These transfers have also generalized the purchase of domestic fuel, particularly firewood, which, in the old days, was collected by men. The data collected from our interlocutors shows that 64 % of the consumption units make direct use of these external remittances to by firewood. The study also shows that more than 90 % of the soninke country’s domestic fuel supply is dependent on non-indigenous actors. To meet the increased demand for firewood in a large lucrative market, financial transfers have led suppliers to irrationally exploit wood resources so as to maximize their cash income in the soninke country. The result is the progressive depletion of local afforestation and the use of forest resources in the increasingly remoted regional areas and those of Mauritania, a bordering country of Senegal. It results from the socio-economic challenge of sourcing the soninke country in firewood, the challenge linked to environment in the internal and crossborder areas. Because of that, it is imperative to rationalize the demand for firewood energy or replace it with renewable energies (biogas and solar cooker), or even with butane gas. However, some preconditions must be met for a real adoption of these ecological and/or modern cooking technologies.
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Dramane Cissokho. Mobilité et combustibles domestiques en Pays Soninké (Sénégal). Géographie. Université Assane Seck de Ziguinchor, 2019. Français. ⟨tel-02264302⟩

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