Evaluation in vivo de protéines immunorégulatrices dérivées de CTLA-4 et de PD-L1 pour leur capacité à inhiber les réponses immunitaires dans le contexte de la thérapie génique musculaire par AAV

Abstract : Gene therapy consist into introducing genetic material into cells to treat genetic disorders. Most gene therapies use viral vectors to carry the gene within target cells. In case of monogenic disorders, adeno-associated viruses (AAV) has become a vector of choice because of its lack of pathogenicity, its large tropism and its capacity to transduce quiescent cells. The use of AAV is approved in Europe to treat a rare lysosomal storage disease and has recently been approved by the FDA to treat a genetic cause of blindness. However, most clinical trials face immune responses directed against AAV components which may be highly immunogenic. This deleterious immunogenicity often lead to the trial failure. In addition, transgenic protein can also be immunogenic, aimaing to the destruction of transduced cells and ultimatly to gene therapy failure. In clinic, immunosuppressive drug remain the only option to counteract unwanted immune responses. These drugs possess infectious and tumorigenic side effects, therefore strategies aiming to rather capable to induce tolerance toward the transgenic protein are being developped and needed. The objectif of this work was to implement a new strategy aiming to study the immunoregulatory and tolerogenic effect of fusion proteins derived from CTLA-4 and PD-L1. We used a murin model recapitulating the immunes responses induced by an AAV coding for an immunogenic model protein, ovalbumin (Ova) presented in previous studies by our group and others. Then, we synthesized AAV coding for our newly designed immunoregulatory protein and injected them into mice along with AAV-Ova. This strategy of vectorized immunoregulation (VIR) allowed to evaluate the intrinsic capacity of each individual proteins to modulate immune responses against Ova directly in vivo. Eventually, this work allow to 1) assess the benefits and limits of the VIR strategy, 2) the deletrious long-term effects of CTLA-4/Fc on central and peripheral Tregs in mice, 3) to demonstrate the interest of new molecules specifically derived from PD-L1/Fc over the immune tolerance through the long-term persistance of Ova transgene.
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Léa Dupaty. Evaluation in vivo de protéines immunorégulatrices dérivées de CTLA-4 et de PD-L1 pour leur capacité à inhiber les réponses immunitaires dans le contexte de la thérapie génique musculaire par AAV. Immunologie. Normandie Université, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018NORMR133⟩. ⟨tel-02136815⟩

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