Développement d'un vaccin à ADN contre le virus du Syndrome Dysgénésique et Respiratoire Porcin (PRRSV)

Abstract : The Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is the most damaging infectious disease in pigs worldwide. The etiologic agent is an Arterivirus, the PRRSV, which presents a large genetic diversity. PRRSV infection is frequently associated with influenza virus co-infection. Vaccination is a highly suitable way to control these viruses. In the case of PRRSV, the most effective commercial vaccines are modified live vaccines (MLV) which induce only a partial protection against heterologous strains. In the case of the influenza virus, the available inactivated vaccines show the same weakness.With the goal to control emerging influenza and PRRSV variants, I evaluated vaccine strategies involving conserved viral antigens between strains which were targeted to antigen-presenting cells (APC) and delivered by different routes and methods.In the case of influenza virus, the targeting of conserved antigens (HA2, M2e and NP) to CD11c led to increased IFNγ T cell responses only when vaccines were delivered by the intramuscular (IM) route and had no effect on the humoral response. The intradermal route exacerbated disease following challenge whereas the IM route reduced the symptoms, the duration of viral excretion in correlation with higher anti-HA2 and anti-M2e antibody responses.In the case of PRRSV, which was my main subject, I sought to optimize the IFNγ T cell responses by using DNA vaccines encoding antigens with conserved T-epitopes between strains, and targeted to APC. Indeed, whereas viral mutants escape neutralizing antibodies, it has been proposed that the IFNγ T cell responses are instrumental for cross-protection. I showed that the broadest T cell responses were induced by DNA vaccines combined to nanoparticles PLGA (NP) injected by the intradermal route, followed by electroporation (EP) compared with EP-only, intradermal route-only or transcutaneous dissolvable microneedles. This optimal immunogenicity was associated with a high transfection level of skin cells, an accumulation of inflammatory cells, and dendritic cells mobilisation. Next I used the EP+NP method to immunize pigs with plasmids encoding conserved PRRSV antigens targeted or not to APC via CD11c or XCR1. Pigs were immunized either with repeated injections of DNA alone or with a prime-boost DNA-MLV. The DNA-MLV regimen induced improved humoral and IFNγ T cell responses compared to DNA alone or MLV alone and the APC-targeting significantly increased the humoral response but not the IFNγ T cell response. Finally, I evaluated the DNA-MLV regimen efficacy, with an applied perspective, using naked DNA without NP and delivered by EP or by a convenient needle free injection technology (PJ). In these conditions, the DNA prime did not significantly increase the IFNγ T cell response induced by the MLV, but clearly increased the humoral response with a benefit of the APC-targeting. However, the immune potentiation induced by the DNA prime did not lead to an improved protection following a heterologous challenge. The heterologous protection was not correlated to the measured humoral and IFNγ T cell responses, and neutralizing antibodies were undetectable. Thus cross-protective effectors have not been sufficiently activated by our DNA-MLV strategy and the immune correlates of protection against heterologous PRRSV are still to be identified to develop cross-protective vaccines. Finally, this work shows that the effect of APC-targeting in pigs is influenced by delivery routes and methods and by vaccine regimen such as the prime-boost DNA-MLV.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, May 15, 2019 - 7:05:23 PM
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Cindy Bernelin-Cottet. Développement d'un vaccin à ADN contre le virus du Syndrome Dysgénésique et Respiratoire Porcin (PRRSV). Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLA004⟩. ⟨tel-02130476⟩

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