Impact du peptide antimicrobien issu du venin de la fourmi Tetramorium bicarinatum P17 sur la polarisation et l'acquisition des fonctions antifongiques des macrophages humains vis-à-vis de Candida albicans

Abstract : Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are evolutionary small and amphipatic conserved molecules which are involved in the immune defense of a wide range of organisms, including bacteria, insects, plants and vertebrates. Beside their direct microbicidal activity against pathogens, most of them are known to exert immunomodulatory functions on innate and adaptive immune cells. Here we evaluated the immunomodulatory properties of an original cationic AMP, named P17, discovered and isolated by our team from the ant Tetramorium bicarinatum venom. We have focused on its efficiency to modulate human monocyte-derived macrophages (h-MDM) differentiation and its capacity to provide them an antifungal activity against the main opportunistic yeast Candida albicans (C. albicans). We showed that P17 directed h-MDM polarization toward an alternative phenotype characterized by mannose (MR) and dectin-1 C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) upregulation. Interestingly, we demonstrated that this upregulation of MR and Dectin-1 in P17-treated h-MDM requires AA mobilization and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) synthesis, essential for PPAR activation. We also demonstrated that this AA metabolite led to the PPARƴ nuclear receptor activation which is a key factor of macrophages alternative activation and the associated CLRs expression. In this study, we observed that P17-activated h-MDM exhibited an improved capacity to eliminate C. albicans. Indeed, these P17-polarized macrophages displayed an increased ability to recognize and phacocyte yeasts. Furthermore, the study of microbicidal mechanisms leading to C. albicans clearance revealed that P17-activated h-MDM produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammasome-dependant IL-1ß in high amounts. These mechanisms induction in P17-polarized h-MDM was dependent on the LTB4/ PPARƴ/Dectin-1-MR axis. Finally, these data were supported by in vivo experiments demonstrating that P17-treated mice infected with C. albicans developed less severe gastrointestinal infection related to a higher efficiency of their macrophages to engulf C. albicans, to produce ROS and to kill yeasts. Altogether, these results identify P17 as an original activator of the fungicidal response of macrophages that acts downstream the pathway leading to CLRs expression through PPARƴ activation.
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Khaddouj Benmoussa. Impact du peptide antimicrobien issu du venin de la fourmi Tetramorium bicarinatum P17 sur la polarisation et l'acquisition des fonctions antifongiques des macrophages humains vis-à-vis de Candida albicans. Immunologie. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30379⟩. ⟨tel-02013759⟩

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