Analyse d'images pour l'identification multi-organes d'espèces végétales

Abstract : This thesis is part of the ANR ReVeRIES, which aims to use mobile technologies to help people better understand their environment and in particular the plants that surround them. More precisely, the ReVeRIES project is based on a mobile application called Folia developed as part of the ANR ReVeS project and capable of recognising tree and shrub species based on photos of their leaves. This prototype differs from other tools in that it is able to simulate the behaviour of the botanist. In the context of the ReVeRIES project, we propose to go much further by developing new aspects: multimodal species recognition, learning through play and citizen science. The purpose of this thesis is to focus on the first of these three aspects, namelythe analysis of images of plant organs for identification.More precisely, we consider the main trees and shrubs, endemic or exotic, found in metropolitan France. The objective of this thesis is to extend the recognition algorithm by taking into account other organs in addition to the leaf. This multi-modality is indeed essential if we want the user to learn and practice the different methods of recognition for which botanists use the variety of organs (i.e. leaves, flowers, fruits and bark). The method used by Folia for leaf recognition being dedicated, because simulating the work of a botanist on the leaf, cannot be applied directly to other organs. Thus, new challenges are emerging, both in terms of image processing and data fusion.The first part of the thesis was devoted to the implementation of image processing methods for the identification of plant species. The identification of tree species from bark images was the first to be studied. The descriptors developed take into account the structure of the bark inspired from the criteria used by botanists. Fruits and flowers required a segmentation step before their description. A new segmentation method that can be used on smartphones has been developed to work in spite of the high variability of flowers and fruits. Finally, descriptors were extracted on fruits and flowers after the segmentation step. We decided not to separate flowers and fruits because we showed that a user new to botany does not always know the difference between these two organs on so-called "ornamental" trees (not fruit trees). For fruits and flowers, prediction is not only made on their species but also on their genus and family, botanical groups reflecting a similarity between these organs.The second part of the thesis deals with the combination of descriptors of the different organs: leaves, bark, fruits and flowers. In addition to basic combination methods, we propose to consider the confusion between species, as well as predictions of affiliations in botanical taxa higher than the species.Finally, an opening chapter is devoted to the processing of these images by convolutional neural networks. Indeed, Deep Learning is increasingly used in image processing, particularly for plant organs. In this context, we propose to visualize the learned convolution filters extracting information, in order to make the link between the information extracted by these networks and botanical elements.
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Sarah Bertrand. Analyse d'images pour l'identification multi-organes d'espèces végétales. Environnements Informatiques pour l'Apprentissage Humain. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSE2127⟩. ⟨tel-01951469⟩

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