Fusion multimodale pour la reconnaissance d'espèces d'arbres

Abstract : Information fusion systems allow the combination of data issued from different sources of information while considering their quality. Combining data from heterogeneous sources makes it possible to take advantage of the complementarity of the data and thus potentially have higher performances than those obtained when using a single source of information.The use of these systems is interesting in the context of tree species recognition through the fusion of information issued from two modalities : leaves and barks. A single modality may represent different sources of information, each describing one of its most relevant characteristics. This makes it possible to reproduce the strategy adopted by botanists who base themselves on these same criteria. The adoption of this strategy is part of the enhancement of the educational aspect. In this context, a merger system is conceivable in order to combine the data issued from one modality as well as the data issued from different modalities. In the context of tree species recognition, we treat a real problem since the photos of leaves and bark are taken in the natural environment. The processing of this type of data is complicated because of their specificities due firstly to the nature of the objects to be recognized (age, inter-species similarity and intra-species variability) and secondly to the environment.Errors can be accumulated during the pre-fusion process. The merit of the fusion is to take into account all the imperfections that can taint the available data and try to model them well. The fusion is more effective if the data is well modeled. The theory of belief functions represents one of the best theoretical frameworks able to manage and represent uncertainty, inaccuracy, conflict, etc. This theory is important because of its wealth of tools to manage the various sources of imperfections as well as the specificities of the available data. In the framework of this theory, it is possible to model the data through the construction of mass functions. It is also possible to manage the computational complexity thanks to the approximations allowing to reduce the number of focal elements. Conflict being one of the most present sources of imperfections, can be dealt through the selection of the best combination rule.By merging sources of information with different degrees of reliability, it is possible that the least reliable source affects the data issued from the most reliable one. One of the solutions for this problem is to try to improve the performances of the least reliable source. Thus, by merging with other sources, it will provide useful information and will in turn contribute in improving the performance of the fusion system.The performance improvement of an information source can be effected through the correction of mass functions. In this context, the correction can be made based on measures of the relevance or sincerity of the studied source. The confusion matrices present a data source from which meta-knowledge characterizing the state of a source can be extracted. In this manuscript, the proposed fusion system is a hierarchical fusion system set up within the framework of belief function theory. It allows to merge data from leaves and barks and provides the user with a list of the most likely species while respecting the educational purpose of the application. The computational complexity of this fusion system is quite small allowing, in the long term, to implement the application on a Smart-phone.
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Rihab Ben Ameur. Fusion multimodale pour la reconnaissance d'espèces d'arbres. Traitement du signal et de l'image [eess.SP]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAA005⟩. ⟨tel-01921590⟩

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