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Etude comparée du Livre de Ruth : L'originalité de la traduction-calque en Ladino, Dans la bible de Ferrare (1553)

Abstract : Linguistic diversity is a natural phenomenon, but language can also be fixed in certain forms that it is forbidden to modify for religious reasons. This situation is not out of the Semitic traditions (Judaism and Islam), which have a sacred language (the hebrew or the Arabic), is here the body of the revelation. This explains the problems that arose for Jews expelled from Spain at the end of the 15th century. Many of them have become unable to read the biblical text in its original Hebrew version, there is a translation error. which is called Ladino, language only written, while the Jews are continuously spoken in Judeo-Spanish, that is to say in a Castilian variegated with Hebraisms. Unfortunately, ladino is still often confused with Judeo-Spanish despite the many clarifications made, especially by the scholarly publications of Mr. Chaim Vidal SEPHIHA. It is in the extension of these scholarly studies that Jean-Michel THOMAS devoted himself to these books in English / Book of Ruth, whose book was not read, in the Ferrara Bible, which was made until now. We discover this version of the biblical text in archaic Castilian (XIII century), transcription more confusing for the Latin spirits, but which makes appear the part of the Sephardic Jews with a very meritorious effort to preserve their religious and scriptural heritage. This version of the Bible of Ferrara If the Bible of Ferrara has already been published, then it has remained very difficult to find because it was published only once, its spiritual efficacy on the thousands of Jews who have read and meditated; its value depends much more from the bottom of the form. Moreover, by staying very close to the original text and by the way, there are many things to do. Cyprian de Valera who was imitated, was published biblical in the short term. Thus, despite the apparent inelegance, the Ferrara Bible had the advantage of allowing Jews to once again feel the language of the sacred book through the translation they were reading. It would be paradoxical if it is a text as neat in its presentation that we offer a poor translation, even frankly bad. This exaggerated accusation of Menéndez and Pelayo is unfounded. The layer that we present this text was not intended to seek elegance; we must therefore stop reproaching him. If Ladino, despite all the blunders that he has been accused of, a known success, as proven by the numerous reissues of the Ferrara Bible of 1553, it is what he does unsuspected virtues by those who live outside of Judaism. Ladino is certainly not a spoken language, but it is a style that "speaks" to the heart of the Jews. Although it is good and it is in another language than the Bible, the Sephardic Jew indirectly finds its roots in Ladino. It's not a text, but a translation text, or an expression is not a Bible layer. It retains partially through the ladino. We can certify that you ask if the tracing of Ladino does not express, but to a certain extent only, the difficulty that the Jew feels to open himself to "the other", because the world is still difficult to penetrate because of the exclusive mentality of the chosen people, which always tends to fall back on itself. That is why, for the Jews - but they are not the only ones - the other (the non-Jew) is almost always in the background; its representation is the one that goes off or does not take place at a distance. From this point of view Ladino, which as a layer of Hebrew does not make us leave the world, is another way of distinguishing itself from the other and expressing it to a certain extent this characteristic replica of the Jewish world on itself. This ostracism, however, has nothing absolute as evidenced by the book of Ruth whose main character is a Moabite, from a traditionally hostile and despised by the Hebrew people. So here we have an example that can not be more interesting from this opening to the other and at the same time from this attachment to Jewish identity, so painstakingly preserved over the centuries.
Keywords : Translation Studies
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01919261
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Submitted on : Monday, November 26, 2018 - 9:21:23 AM
Last modification on : Monday, October 11, 2021 - 2:23:21 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Wednesday, February 27, 2019 - 12:33:38 PM

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Jean-Michel Thomas. Etude comparée du Livre de Ruth : L'originalité de la traduction-calque en Ladino, Dans la bible de Ferrare (1553). Linguistique. UBO Brest, 2003. Français. ⟨tel-01919261⟩

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