Essais sur la précarité énergétique : Mesures multidimensionnelles et impacts de la fiscalité carbone.

Abstract : This thesis explores two questions about fuel poverty in France: What indicator(s) should be adopted to quantify fuel poverty and capture its multiple dimensions? To what extent does ecological taxation amplify the phenomenon or, on the contrary, provides an opportunity to fight it? A first chapter introduces the social and economic issues of fuel poverty in France, as well as the challenges this phenomenon raises for public actors in the context of an ecological transition (chapter 1). Then the thesis is divided into two main parts. The first part deals with the measurement of fuel poverty. I start by highlighting the current debates on the measurement of fuel poverty and the limitations of existing approaches (chapter 2). Next, I explore the transport dimension of fuel poverty and I propose a composite index of the various factors that constrain household mobility and their possibilities to adapt to higher fuel prices. This index identifies three levels of exposure to rising fuel prices: precariousness, vulnerability and dependence (chapter 3). I then continue studying the design of a multidimensional index of energy poverty and I seek to uncover its political implications. Two indices are developed: one for housing and one for transport. I show how these new indices, through addressing the cumulative factors that disadvantage households in terms of energy, can help limit the inclusion and exclusion errors from which conventional approaches suffer. Quantification in the French context brings new insights on the targeting of policy responses and emphasizes the need to address the non-monetary dimensions of fuel poverty (chapter 4). The second part studies the distributive impacts of carbon taxation. Based on a review of literature, I discuss the methodological issues and the modelling choices to represent the distribution of impacts (chapter 5). I then develop a microsimulation model to assess the impact of the French carbon tax on households. This model simulates, for a representative sample of the French population, the taxes levied on their energy consumption in housing and transport. I use this model to quantify the impact of the carbon tax on inequality and fuel poverty. Finally, I explore different scenarios of redistribution of carbon tax revenues to households, with the objective to correct the found inequities - in particular, to compensate for the regressivity of the carbon tax and to reduce fuel poverty. I evaluate the cost of these measures in respect to the amount of carbon tax revenues (chapter 6).
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Audrey Berry. Essais sur la précarité énergétique : Mesures multidimensionnelles et impacts de la fiscalité carbone.. Economies et finances. EHESS - Paris, 2018. Français. ⟨tel-01900400⟩

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