L'éducation aux sciences dans un monde incertain : Comment les enseignantes appréhendent-elles les incertitudes de la question vive de la transition agroécologique ? Étude de cas auprès d’enseignantes de l’éducation nationale et de l’enseignement agricole en contextes de formation.

Abstract : We live in the age of uncertainties. The development of technosciences creates huge interrogations for which societies are unable to answer with certainty and universality. In addition to the fundamental epistemological debate about the certainty of scientific knowledge appear by now some social, political, informational uncertainties that structure the dynamic of the controversies in the social space. Within classroom, the teaching of socially acute questions (as nuclear energy, GMOs, animal welfare, etc) provides the opportunity to work on these uncertainties, because of the plurality of potential answers they include. In the field of sciences didactic, these uncertainties approach allows a better comprehension of the socially acute questions’ teaching risks felt by teachers. How do the uncertainties encountered reconfigure their relation to the knowledge involved in the controversy and the representation they have about science teaching? I investigated in two educational systems, general education (biology teachers) and agricultural education (teachers from different disciplines) around the acute question of agroecological transition. A comparative analysis of curricula distinguishes two educational cultures that don’t give the same visibility to uncertainties: general education organizes it curricula more around stabilized knowledge whereas agricultural education, with multidisciplinarity, profiles a kind of inclusion of some uncertainties. Despite a strong intangibility of the "uncertainty" term, I uncovered some clues of uncertainties’ characterization related to agroecological transition in the teachers’ comments. These elements modify my representation of uncertainty around four main forms: epistemic uncertainty, uncertainty of technosciences’ impacts, actors uncertainty and uncertainty of possible solutions. In the process of teachers’ positioning on the studied question, I observed a difficult understanding of the complexity due to a sensation of informational saturation or a kind of rationalist reflex encouraging them to enclose the question with a final, certain and reassuring answer. Overall, socially acute questions expose the teachers, beginners or not, to epistemic insecurity. Intrinsically, these questions lead them to construct their point of view on the subject during the course preparation or potentially during the students’ inquiry in classroom. It implies a reconfiguration of their professional posture that some of them accept, mourning epistemic completeness by conviction or experience, and that others don’t accept, looking for strengthening their position concerning knowledge mastering and social control of the classroom. My observation of professional training situations – around mapping controversies or developing a pedagogical scenario – shows that some devices of socio-scientific inquiry allow an exploration of the question’s complexity and create possibilities to work on uncertainties. However, efficient tools have still to be thought or adapted, as scenarios of the future, in complement with a real epistemological training of science teachers. These are the living conditions of an uncertainty education that can have the means to exceed the anxiety-provoking aspect of technosciences consequences and be able to override a technician accaparation of these issues. This uncertainty education, with the help of a kind of action ecology, would give to the citizens resources for a reappropriation of their futures and, finally, create opportunities whose socio-political relevance is the proper horizon.
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Lucas Nédélec. L'éducation aux sciences dans un monde incertain : Comment les enseignantes appréhendent-elles les incertitudes de la question vive de la transition agroécologique ? Étude de cas auprès d’enseignantes de l’éducation nationale et de l’enseignement agricole en contextes de formation.. Education. Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès, 2018. Français. ⟨tel-01897072⟩

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