Rivalités et collaborations entre ainés et cadets sociaux dans les milieux associatifs islamiques en Côte d’Ivoire et au Burkina Faso (1970-2017)

Abstract : At first glance, the recent terrorist attacks in Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso have encouraged the belief that Islamic radicalization is taking place in both countries. However, much media attention on these fears and the growing number of analyzes on the risks of a surge in extremism, while important, eclipse earlier and more recent dynamics that define Islam in Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso. The goal is to present a more nuanced portrait of the long-lasting realities characterizing these Muslim communities, which are less covered, but more pregnant, such as the participation of Muslims from marginalized social categories, mainly youth and women, in the mutations of Islam through their activism in religious associations. Through a comparative study of the Ivorian and Burkinabe cases, this thesis intends to take an avenue that has not yet been exploited by proposing research on social cadets belonging to different cultural models (French/Arabic speakers, fundamentalist/reformist, etc.). We will see in what ways these actors, since the 1970s, have managed to renegotiate power relations and hierarchical modalities to claim a more important place in the religious field and the public sphere to the point of reconfiguring progressively national Islamic associations. Three main hypotheses are defended. First, until the end of the 1980s, the cadets remained in a distant position regarding the main Islamic associations, which were dominated by social elders in both Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso. This situation was not generating genuine open tensions or intergenerational conflicts. During this period, the preponderance of rivalries on the basis of the "politics of the belly" between leaders of Islamic organizations of the two countries consolidated the position of the elders, who mastered the administrative procedures of the State while being able to employ extraversion strategies. In this context, the emergence of a new cohort of young Ivorian and Burkinabe Arabic speakers did not allow a renewal of the associative leaders despite their important religious capital. A second hypothesis defends the idea that youth and women played a more significant role in Islamic associations in Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso from the years 1990 and 2000, thanks to negotiations, compromises and cooperation between elders and cadets as part of a winding process marked by advances - much more significant in Côte d'Ivoire - and retreats depending on the association. In both countries, the cadets of French-speaking Muslim organizations benefited from a particularly favourable framework to express their agency. From the 2000s, changes in the Salafist movements of both countries and the high place given to youth and women in Islamic radios, especially in Côte d'Ivoire, illustrated the fact that seniors reviewed the responsibilities assigned to cadets in the da'wa. However, relations between elders and cadets within the organizations recognized as the principal interlocutors of Muslims with the State were particularly evocative of the still mostly gerontocratic nature of Islam in Burkina Faso, unlike Côte d'Ivoire. Finally, the last hypothesis postulates that mastery of the language of the state, and religious knowledge are no longer sufficient in the increasingly competitive field of Islamic associations for those claiming the legitimacy of being able to speak in the name of the "Muslim community." While religious knowledge remains important, the legitimacy and authority of those in charge of Islamic organizations derived increasingly from the capacity to convey a "civil Islam" and to engage in socio-economic development. This phenomenon, which had the effect of favouring, among other things, the rise of young people educated in the French-language education system, manifested itself much more rapidly in Côte d'Ivoire than in Burkina Faso.
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Frédérick Madore. Rivalités et collaborations entre ainés et cadets sociaux dans les milieux associatifs islamiques en Côte d’Ivoire et au Burkina Faso (1970-2017). Histoire. Université Laval (Québec, Canada), 2018. Français. ⟨tel-01880373⟩

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