Sélection de l'habitat d'une espèce exotique en milieu urbain : le cas de la perruche à collier Psittacula krameri

Abstract : Urban areas are human-dominated systems, with specific characteristics, from abiotic to biotic components, and a privileged place for the introduction of exotic species. Identifying the mechanisms which may allow invasive species to establish and spread is not only a scientific question of interest but also a crucial knowledge to acquire for the management of these species. This thesis work focuses on the ring-necked parakeet, Psittacula krameri, a Psittacine species widely introduced throughout Europe and for which the spatial expansion and demographic growth have raised concerns about its potential impacts in the introduced range. This thesis aimed to study factors underlying the spatiotemporal distribution and which may explain the urban success of this species, from the analysis of habitat selection to behavioral traits, and by the exploration of the recent technological and statistical improvements in the acquisition and analysis of spatiotemporal data. Results showed that habitat selection is closely related to anthropic activities, the species showing a clear preference for suburban zones and green urban areas in which the species seems to be attracted by artificial lights and exotic tree species. Using the Western jackdaw, a native range-expanding and co-occurring species, distribution modelling allowed to predict the potential future distribution and showed that, while the jackdaw may spatially expand in the more urbanized part of the city, the ring-necked parakeet may be restricted to suburban areas in the future. An ethological experiment highlighted the agonistic behavior of the ring-necked parakeet and a passive monopolization of resources, suggesting a competitive advantage over native species, exacerbated by temporal niche overlap and avoidance behavior by native species. This thesis suggests that parakeets have the potential to reach high numbers in urban areas and the overall findings provide further insight into the mechanisms allowing the establishment and spread of expanding species, native and exotic, through spatial and behavioral factors.
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Submitted on : Friday, July 13, 2018 - 12:35:51 PM
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Marine Le Louarn. Sélection de l'habitat d'une espèce exotique en milieu urbain : le cas de la perruche à collier Psittacula krameri. Biodiversité et Ecologie. Aix Marseille Université, 2017. Français. ⟨tel-01838407⟩

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