Etude de la région locomotrice mésencéphalique chez le primate : comportement et anatomie

Abstract : Parkinsonian patients suffer from disabling sleep disorders, and at an advanced stage gait disorders become resistant to dopaminergic treatment. Evidence from experimental and clinical studies consider the implication of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR), associating the pedunculopontine (PPN) and the cuneiform nuclei (CuN). Deep brain stimulation in this regionto treat doparesistant gait disorders in parkinsonian patients, was shown to improve sleep parameters. Dysfunction of this network could explain part of the pathophysiology of these symptoms. In order to have an anatomo-functional study of the PPN and the CuN at normal and parkinsonian state, this project has associated a behavioral axis in monkeys and an anatomic axis in monkeys and humans. Behavioral study. Sleep disorders have been analyzed in an advanced Parkinson disease primate model. These symptoms were improved with dopaminergic treatment and melatonin.After a cholinergic PPN lesion, there was an acute worsening of the symptoms, which improved three weeks after. Anatomic study. We analyzed the connections between the PPN and the CuN relating to the three anatomo-functional territories of the basal ganglia in monkeys and humans. The PPN integrated information from the three territories (sensori-motor, associative and limbic), compared to the CuN which connected to limbic territories. We then studied the subthalamic cholinergic innervation from the PPN at optic and ultra-structural level in monkeys and humans, comparing it with the dopaminergic innervation. Our results showed a homogeneous cholinergic innervation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) compared to the heterogeneous dopaminergic innervation.
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Hayat Belaid. Etude de la région locomotrice mésencéphalique chez le primate : comportement et anatomie. Neurosciences [q-bio.NC]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PA066379⟩. ⟨tel-01814181⟩

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