Etude et optimisation de nouveaux types de capteurs pour la détection de polluants en milieu aquatique

Abstract : In this thesis, we introduce the study and implementation of micro-sensors for natural risk management systems. The specification focused on the possibilities to develop a pollutant sensor capable of detecting the presence of hydrocarbons in the lagoon environments of southern Montpellier.These sensors should be designed in a "low cost" gait, resistant to environmental constraints and able to communicate in real time. The first chapter is based on a bibliographical study of the different methods of measurement that can be used for the detection of pollutants and potential materials for making the sensor. The most suitable measurement technology to answer the first two points of the specification is based on the implementation of acoustic transducers made from PZT with a technological process using the screen-printing technique. After justifying our choice of screen-printing deposition technique, we have detailed in the second chapter the technological process: first with the achievement of PZT ink, then with the masks design, and finally with the steps deposition and functionalization of transducers on alumina substrate and without substrate. From these first achievements, we have submitted the means and characterization tools needed to evaluate the different steps of the technological process set up with a focus on the quality of the PZT material and its piezoelectric properties. It is first about morphological (SEM images, profilometer) and structural (XRD, EDX) studies, and then about the measurement of piezoelectric and dielectric values (piezometer, spectral and impedance analyses). In the third chapter we discussed the sensor, with the production of prototypes based on screen-printed transducers developed in Chapter 2. The sensors were tested and calibrated with solutions of ethanol and toluene. For this, the screen-printed sensors were tested in experimental benches to validate the measurement technique of the acoustic waves time of flight. In view of the miniaturization and the integration of the system, we have set an electronic control board with a dedicated module. Finally in order to improve the measurements, we have shown that we could consider crossing/correlating several parameters. Thus, we have developed a screen-printed sensor for the measurement of the electrical conductivity in aquatic environment. From the first experimental results we validated the principle of the method. In the fourth and final chapter of this manuscript, we presented the first studies and achievements on the LTCC technology. By repeating the process parameters used during deposition on alumina substrate, we realized and characterized transducers placed on on a LTCC ceramic sheet. The first morphological and piezoelectric characterizations are encouraging, and the first acoustic tests have shown that the generations of acoustic waves, and a use for the production of sensors of pollutants were possible with this technology. Finally we have been able to achieve a first 3D structure incorporating an analysis cavity. Here again, results are very encouraging, although "adjustments" are needed to improve the technology. Also this 3D realization opens up many opportunities for the team to develop new sensors.
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David Lapeine. Etude et optimisation de nouveaux types de capteurs pour la détection de polluants en milieu aquatique. Electronique. Université Montpellier, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016MONTT256⟩. ⟨tel-01809019⟩

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