l'élevage montagnard face au paysage patrimonial : organisation et réseaux d'acteurs autour de la construction d'une nouvelle représentation collective : l’exemple des sites « Causses et Cévennes » et « Chaîne des Puys – Faille De Limagne »

Abstract : What is a landscape heritage? It is a new look by actors on a landscape wichi, according to Levy & Lussault (2003) “is supposed to deserve a transfer from past to find a value in present”. It is “a collection of attributes, representations, practices fixed on a non-contemporary object […] whose present importance is declared collectively, intrinsic (how this objet is representative of history of society’s objects) and extrinsic (how this object contains the values of a collective memory), which requires its conservation and its transmission.In order to define the heritage properties of landscape, people organize themselves into groups and try to communicate with each other’s. Each constructs a representation of the landscape around specific attributes that are of interest to the group. All these representations are different and yet they concern a single landscape. When it comes to carrying out an action that will have an effect on this common space, the groups interact with each other within a “collective network”. The action may be the subject of negotiations, tensions, conflicts, agreement or abandonment depending on the position of each person. However, whether the action was carried out or abandoned, the actors have exchanged their views on the landscape throughout the collective network. Therefore, as actions are progressively carried out on patrimonial landscape, groups of people construct a common view of this landscape: it is the “collective representation of the landscape”.Unlike a material object, the landscape is difficult to quantify. The acquisition for the latter of a heritage value therefore requires a complex process called “patrimonialization process”. For the groups of people present in the landscape, this process is not insignificant. It disrupts the collective representation of the landscape that has been built in the collective network. In the resulting social disorder, the groups will struggle to assert their representation of the landscape in a new collective representation. In this context, our thesis poses the following problem: Considering a territory undergoing a transformation of the look towards a heritage context, to what extent do agricultural and non-agricultural stakeholders build a new collective representation focused on keeping livestock, use of space and landscape management?To address this problem, we have mobilized the networks of agricultural and non-agricultural actors existing at two sites in the Massif Central that are registered or in search of inscription on the UNESCO World Heritage (“Les Causses et les Cévennes” and “La Chaîne des Puys - faille de Limagne”). After a brief description of the two sites, we have explained our positioning as regards the collective rather than the individual aspect in the construction of a representation of the landscape and around the organization and management of the landscape. We have then constructed a methodology that is inspired by this theoretical contribution. Thanks to it, we managed to conduct a hundred interviews which enabled us to identify and analyze on the sites the two networks in which the collective actors are organizing to integrate this new heritage stake in their representation of the landscape. This network organization materializes around a series of actions aimed to the management of the heritage, as well as support for livestock rising and the enhancement of agricultural production. Thus, we note that the process of patrimonialization contributes indirectly, by influencing the collective representation of agricultural space, to the evolution of agricultural practices which are themselves responsible for the construction of space
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Xavier Badan. l'élevage montagnard face au paysage patrimonial : organisation et réseaux d'acteurs autour de la construction d'une nouvelle représentation collective : l’exemple des sites « Causses et Cévennes » et « Chaîne des Puys – Faille De Limagne ». Géographie. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017CLFAL008⟩. ⟨tel-01780560⟩

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