Traitement électrocinétique des sédiments de dragage multi-contaminés et évolution de leur toxicité

Abstract : This thesis research is mainly devoted to the optimization of an electrokinetic (EK) remediation process as a promising technology for treating multi-contaminated (trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorobiphenyles (PCBs)) dredged harbor sediments of low permeability. This study is also investigating the effect of the EK treatment on the evolution of sediment toxicity. After a bibliographic review, asecond part of this study was dedicated to the analytical methods carried out for the characterization of the sediment and its contaminants, particularly to their extraction from the sediment matrix; thus a new extraction method, through matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) was developed, for a fast and simultaneous extraction of both PAHs and PCBs, and a sample purification.MSPD appeared more efficient than the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method. Thereafter many EK experiments (at different scales) were described in a third part. EK remediation tests were performed using a spiked model sediment or natural harbor dredged sediments. Many combinations of surfactants and chelators were tested as EK enhancing agents for decreasing simultaneously metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn) and PAH/PCB levels. Their choice was done because of their possible low toxicity with a view to use them for future site restoration: (bio)surfactants (rhamnolipids, saponin and Tween 20) combined with chelators (citric acid (CA) and EDDS). The results showed that metals (except Cr) were difficult to remove from this kind of dredged sediment owing to its reductive character, to its high buffering capacity, to its very low hydraulic permeability and to its high organic matter content. However PAHs and PCBs showed better removal levels (29.2% and 50.2%, respectively). In a fourth part, the efficiency of the EK process was also assessed by measuring the evolution of the acute toxicity of the treated sediment on E. affinis copepods exposed to sediment elutriates. The results showed that using CA, biosurfactants or Tween 20 as enhancing agents did not significantly impact the toxicity of the treated sediment. However, E. affinis copepods were significantly sensitive to low pH values and oxidative conditions, to Cu, and to a lesser extent to Pb amounts, if they were transformed in more mobile and bioavailable forms. In contrast, acute toxicity was only slightly and even negatively correlated to PAH and PCB amounts after EK treatment, probably due to the production of oxidized metabolites of PAHs and PCBs, more toxic than the parent compounds.
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Yue Tian. Traitement électrocinétique des sédiments de dragage multi-contaminés et évolution de leur toxicité. Génie civil. Normandie Université, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017NORMLH24⟩. ⟨tel-01745565⟩

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