Fusion d'informations multi-capteurs pour la commande du robot humanoïde NAO

Abstract : Being interested in the important role of robotics in human life, we do a research about the improvement in reliability of a humanoid robot NAO by using multi-sensor fusion. In this research, we propose two scenarios: the color detection and the object recognition. In these two cases, a camera of the robot is used in combination with external cameras to increase the reliability under non-ideal working conditions. For the color detection, the NAO robot is requested to find an object whose color is described in human terms such as: red, yellow, brown, etc. The main problem to be solved is how the robot recognizes the colors as well as the human perception does. To do that, we propose a Fuzzy Sugeno system to decide the color of a detected target. For simplicity, the chosen targets are colored balls, so that the Hough transformation is employed to extract the average pixel values of the detected ball, then these values are used as the inputs for the Fuzzy system. The membership functions and inference rules of the system are constructed based on perceptual evaluation of human. The output of the Fuzzy system is a numerical value indicating a color name. Additionally, a threshold value is introduced to define the zone of decision for each color. If the Fuzzy output falls into a color interval constructed by the threshold value, that color is considered to be the output of the system. This is considered to be a good solution in an ideal condition, but not in an environment with uncertainties and imprecisions such as light variation, or sensor quality, or even the similarity among colors. These factors really affect the detection of the robot. Moreover, the introduction of the threshold value also leads to a compromise between uncertainty and reliability. If this value is small, the decisions are more reliable, but the number of uncertain cases are increases, and vice versa. However, the threshold value is preferred to be small after an experimental validation, so the need for a solution of uncertainty becomes more important. To do that, we propose adding more 2D cameras into the detection system of the NAO robot. Each camera applies the same method as described above, but their decisions are fused by using the Dempster-Shafer theory in order to improve the detection rate. The threshold value is taken into account to construct mass values from the Sugeno Fuzzy output of each camera. The Dempster-Shafer's rule of combination and the maximum of pignistic probability are chosen in the method. According to our experimens, the detection rate of the fusion system is really better than the result of each individual camera. We extend this recognition process for colored object recognition. These objects are previously learned during the training phase. To challenge uncertainties and imprecisions, the chosen objects look similar in many points: geometrical form, surface, color, etc. In this scenario, the recognition system has two 2D cameras: one of NAO and one is an IP camera, then we add a 3D camera to take the advantages of depth information. For each camera, we extract feature points of the objects (SURF descriptor for 2D data, and the SHOT descriptor for 3D data). To combine the cameras in the recognition system, the Dempster-Shafer theory is again employed for the fusion. Based on the correspondence to trained models stored in the learning base, each feature point of the detected object votes for one or several classes i.e. a hypothesis in the power set. We construct a mass function after a normalization step. In this case, the Dempster-Shafer's rule of combination and the maximum of pignistic probability are employed to make the final decision. After doing three experiments, we conclude that the recognition rate of the fusion system is much better than the rate of each individual camera, from that we confirm the benefits of multi-sensor fusion for the robot's reliability.
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Thanh Long Nguyen. Fusion d'informations multi-capteurs pour la commande du robot humanoïde NAO. Robotique [cs.RO]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAA010⟩. ⟨tel-01662492⟩

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