Captures estuariennes : Une ethnoécologie de la pêche sur le bas Oyapock (frontière franco-brésilienne)

Abstract : Fishing is based on various forms of social appropriation of aquatic environment. This thesis seeks to define them in the specific context of the Lower Oyapock, estuary of an Amazonian river delineating the border between French Guyana and Amapá state (Brazil). This estuary presents a high variety of aquatic ecosystems (streams, rivers, flooded forests, swamps, mangroves and sea) and is home of high diversity of plant and animal species (over 200 species are caught). The population of the Lower Oyapock forms a cultural melting-pot principally composed by Amerindians, Creoles and Brazilians, established in two towns and 40 villages. Moreover, the presence of a national park along the Brazilian coast and three indigenous lands imply a regulation of access to natural resources. In this context rich in ecological and cultural diversity, where emerge conflicts over fishing territories, this thesis proposes a reading of the dynamics of appropriation of aquatic resources. Results are based on ethnographic data collected from October 2012 to October 2014. They range from more than 70 interviews, 32 fishing trips observations, the inventory of fishing gear, the identification of 195 fishes species, and a study of local taxonomies. The study of fishers’ knowledge reveals a detailed expertise about the aquatic environments, notably their rhythms, and the animal ecology and behavior. Fishermen make an important variety of fishing equipment adapted to both species and spaces. Based on the way knowledge is shared, different fishermen’s groups are characterized and specialized according to the ecological conditions/features (savanna; river and forests; river mouth and sea). Creation of national parks, increasing controls of cross-border flows, urbanization and migration are all contemporary challenges the fishermen are confronting. In this context, three residents groups stand out: professional fishermen from Saint-Georges (French Guyana), those from Oiapoque (Brazil), and the Indigenous villagers from Uaçá (Brazil). These three groups aim to obtain an official recognition of their fishing territories in order to ensure long-term access. Engaged in various strategies, their success in the process hinges on the States’ consideration of their specificities.
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Pauline Laval. Captures estuariennes : Une ethnoécologie de la pêche sur le bas Oyapock (frontière franco-brésilienne). Anthropologie sociale et ethnologie. Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, 2016. Français. ⟨tel-01520101⟩



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