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Analyse de la compensation écologique comme instrument d'internalisation et de lutte contre l'érosion de la biodiversité marine : illustration par l'éolien en mer

Abstract : The installation of marine renewable energies is carried out in compliance with French environmental legislation. The mitigation hierarchy is thus applied to achieve an objective of no net loss of biodiversity. This thesis aims at questioning the effectiveness of the mitigation hierarchy and more specifically biodiversity offsetting as an internalization instrument to halt the erosion of marine biodiversity. We use a qualitative empirical approach to (i) identify the ecological and societal factors as well as their theoretical characteristics that are supposed to enable the offsets achieving the objective of no net loss of biodiversity; and (ii) control whether these conditions are verified in practice for the case of offshore wind farms in Europe and France. The analysis highlights the legal, institutional, methodological and societal issues to be addressed in order to enable biodiversity offsetting to achieve the no net loss priority. On the basis of this observation, a multi-criteria assessment is carried out to reinforce the avoidance and reduction steps of the mitigation hierarchy in order to better define offsetting needs. Ultimately, the analysis shows a shift in biodiversity offsetting based on a strict ecological equivalence to a biodiversity offsetting based on a released ecological equivalence. Offsetting actions tend to be more generalist and / or more directed to ecosystem services than to ecosystem components. Associated with accompanying measures, offsetting actions can help to increase the social acceptability of a development project.
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Submitted on : Monday, August 28, 2017 - 12:17:07 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, March 5, 2020 - 4:27:17 PM

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  • HAL Id : tel-01503500, version 2

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Adeline Bas. Analyse de la compensation écologique comme instrument d'internalisation et de lutte contre l'érosion de la biodiversité marine : illustration par l'éolien en mer. Economies et finances. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BRES0022⟩. ⟨tel-01503500v2⟩

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