Les Paysages du vent : géohistoire et géoarchéologie de la dépression de Kharga (désert Libyque, Égypte) du cinquième siècle avant notre ère à nos jours : 2 500 ans d'interactions entre dynamiques éoliennes et activités humaines dans un milieu hyperaride

Abstract : The limiting features of the wind dynamics are scarce in the Western desert of Egypt, one of the most arid areas in the world: eolian ablation and transport are the prevailing factors of the morphogenesis. Born from artesian waters and human activities, the oases of Kharga basin form an area where the deposition processes are stronger thanks to the large amount of water and vegetation. Eolian dynamics, and their morphogenetic impacts, are strengthened by the nesting of oasis sites (deposition areas) in a desert region (sediment source-zone). The landscapes of the wind are thus formed by the juxtaposition of these areas where opposed processes occur. This thesis aims to describe, understand and explain their development. This work based on geomorphology, geoarchaeology, « géohistoire » and sedimentology gives an account on the impacts on the landscapes of the interactions between eolian dynamics and human activities since the creation of the oases 2 500 years ago. It consists in an overview of the natural and anthropogenic processes and an assessment of the living conditions in the oasis since the Antiquity. The three main results of this research are: - a typology of the elements forming the landscapes of the wind; - a descriptive modelisation of the system at stake in their formations, which is based on an asynchronous cycle of colonisation and abandonment of the sites; - an overview of the main patterns of the long-term environmental and morphogenetic evolution since the creation of the oases. This triple contribution shows that the landscapes of the wind are born from the distortion between the regional environmental trend towards degraded conditions and the local and temporary improvements of the edaphic conditions due to human activities.
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Maël Crépy. Les Paysages du vent : géohistoire et géoarchéologie de la dépression de Kharga (désert Libyque, Égypte) du cinquième siècle avant notre ère à nos jours : 2 500 ans d'interactions entre dynamiques éoliennes et activités humaines dans un milieu hyperaride. Etudes de l'environnement. Université Lumière Lyon 2, France; Université de Lyon, 2016. Français. ⟨tel-01490559⟩

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