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Ecologie évolutive des interactions Hôte / Moustique / Plasmodium : sources d’hétérogénéité de l’infection des vecteurs

Abstract : Mosquitoes play a key role in the dynamics of malaria transmission. Indeed, several life history traits of these bloodsucking insects are closely associated with the basic reproductive rate of the malaria parasite. One of the most important parameters for the transmission of Plasmodium is the rate and intensity of the mosquito infection. However, within a single population, a great heterogeneity of mosquito infection levels is often observed: some mosquitoes are not infected, others are only weakly infected, and yet others have extremely high infection rates. Identifying the sources of variation responsible for this heterogeneity is essential in order to understand the transmission dynamics of Plasmodium. Certain genetic and environmental (temperature, nutrition) parameters have already been identified as having an impact on mosquito infection rates. Nevertheless, many factors remain to be explored. Using an experimental system composed of the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum, its natural vector Culex pipiens and one of its vertebrate host Serinus canaria, we have investigated the effect of several seldom investigated parameters on the infection of mosquitoes. We observed surprising effects of the effect of parental infection, mosquito age and genetic background. In parallel, we also studied a rarely investigated parameter: the impact of the vertebrate host on the mosquito infection rate. We showed that parasite infection dynamics within the host, at short but also long time scales, significantly influence the transmission of Plasmodium to the vector. The sources of heterogeneity of mosquito infection are therefore multiple and all members of this tripartite partnership (i.e. host / parasite / vector) are able to significantly influence the transmission dynamics of the parasite.
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Romain Pigeault. Ecologie évolutive des interactions Hôte / Moustique / Plasmodium : sources d’hétérogénéité de l’infection des vecteurs. Parasitologie. Université Montpellier, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015MONTS025⟩. ⟨tel-01402347⟩

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