Étude des états fondamentaux du Laplacien magnétique avec annulation locale du champ

Abstract : This thesis is devoted to the spectral analysis of the Schrödinger operator with magnetic field and semiclassical parameter, on a bounded regular domain $\Omega$ in dimension two, with Neumann boundary condition. We investigate the case when the magnetic field vanishes along a union of smooth curves. The aim is to understand the influence of the cancellation and to study the behaviour of the lowest eigenvalues and the associated eigenfunctions when $h$ tends to $0$. In this regime - called the semiclassical limit - the precise description of the eigenpairs requires the understanding of underlying models. In the first part, we consider a magnetic field which vanishes linearly along a smooth simple curve intersecting the boundary. The second part is devoted to the case when the magnetic field vanishes quadratically. In both cases, we firstly give a one term asymptotics of the lowest eigenvalue. The upper bound is obtained by using appropriate test functions whereas the lower bound results from a localisation process. This last aspect constitutes the most difficult part because of the different scales involved. Then we investigate the localisation properties of the first eigenfunctions thanks to semiclassical Agmon estimates. This leads to a full asymptotic expansion of the first eigenvalues. In the case when the magnetic field vanishes quadratically, we study in addition the model operator for which the cancellation set is a union of two straight lines, whose intersection form a non-zero angle. In the small angle regime, the structure of the spectrum is governed by an operator symbol with two parameters. We establish different properties of this symbol and the associated band function. Numerical simulations based on the finite elements library Mélina++ have guided the analysis and illustrate the obtained results. The difficulties of the numerical computations - induced by the high phase oscillations of the eigenfunctions - are circumvented by polynomial interpolation of high degree.
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Jean-Philippe Miqueu. Étude des états fondamentaux du Laplacien magnétique avec annulation locale du champ. Mathématiques [math]. Université de Rennes 1, 2016. Français. ⟨tel-01374935⟩

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