Chaos dynamique dans le problème à trois corps restreint

Abstract : This work is devoted to the study of the restricted 3-body problem and particularly to the capture-evolution-ejection process of particles by binary systems (star-planet, binary star, star-supermassive black hole, binary black hole, ...). First, using a generalized Kepler map, we describe, through the case of 1P/Halley, the chaotic dynamics of comets in the Solar System. The here considered binary system is the couple Sun-Jupiter. The symplectic application we use allows us to depict the main characteristics of the dynamics: chaotic trajectories, KAM islands associated to resonances with Jupiter orbital motion, ... We determine exactly and semi-analytically the exchange of energy (kick function) between the Solar System and 1P/Halley at its passage at perihelion. This kick function is the sum of the contributions of 3-body problems Sun-planet-comet associated to the eight planets. We show that each one of these contributions can be split in a keplerian term associated to the planet gravitational potential and a dipolar term due to the Sun movement around Solar System center of mass. We also use the generalized Kepler map to study the capture of dark matter particles by binary systems. We derive the capture cross section showing that long range capture is far more efficient than close encounter induced capture. We show the importance of the rotation velocity of the binary in the capture process. Particularly, a binary system with an ultrafast rotation velocity accumulates a density of captured matter up to 10^4 times the density of the incoming flow of matter. Finally, by direct integration of the planar restricted 3-body problem equations of motion, we study the ejection of particles initially captured by a binary system. In the case of a binary with two components of comparable masses, although almost all the particles are immediately ejected, we show, on Poincaré sections, that the trace of remaining particles in the vicinity of the binary form a fractal structure associated to a strange repeller associated to chaotic open systems. This fractal structure, also present in real space, has a shape of two arm spiral sharing similarities with spiral structures observed in galaxies such as the Milky Way.
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Guillaume Rollin. Chaos dynamique dans le problème à trois corps restreint. Astrophysique [astro-ph]. Université de Franche-Comté, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015BESA2028⟩. ⟨tel-01344435v2⟩

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