Cosparse regularization of physics-driven inverse problems

Abstract : Inverse problems related to physical processes are of great importance in practically every field related to signal processing, such as tomography, acoustics, wireless communications, medical and radar imaging, to name only a few. At the same time, many of these problems are quite challenging due to their ill-posed nature. On the other hand, signals originating from physical phenomena are often governed by laws expressible through linear Partial Differential Equations (PDE), or equivalently, integral equations and the associated Green’s functions. In addition, these phenomena are usually induced by sparse singularities, appearing as sources or sinks of a vector field. In this thesis we primarily investigate the coupling of such physical laws with a prior assumption on the sparse origin of a physical process. This gives rise to a “dual” regularization concept, formulated either as sparse analysis (cosparse), yielded by a PDE representation, or equivalent sparse synthesis regularization, if the Green’s functions are used instead. We devote a significant part of the thesis to the comparison of these two approaches. We argue that, despite nominal equivalence, their computational properties are very different. Indeed, due to the inherited sparsity of the discretized PDE (embodied in the analysis operator), the analysis approach scales much more favorably than the equivalent problem regularized by the synthesis approach. Our findings are demonstrated on two applications: acoustic source localization and epileptic source localization in electroencephalography. In both cases, we verify that cosparse approach exhibits superior scalability, even allowing for full (time domain) wavefield interpolation in three spatial dimensions. Moreover, in the acoustic setting, the analysis-based optimization benefits from the increased amount of observation data, resulting in a speedup in processing time that is orders of magnitude faster than the synthesis approach. Numerical simulations show that the developed methods in both applications are competitive to state-of-the-art localization algorithms in their corresponding areas. Finally, we present two sparse analysis methods for blind estimation of the speed of sound and acoustic impedance, simultaneously with wavefield interpolation. This is an important step toward practical implementation, where most physical parameters are unknown beforehand. The versatility of the approach is demonstrated on the “hearing behind walls” scenario, in which the traditional localization methods necessarily fail. Additionally, by means of a novel algorithmic framework, we challenge the audio declipping problemregularized by sparsity or cosparsity. Our method is highly competitive against stateof-the-art, and, in the cosparse setting, allows for an efficient (even real-time) implementation.
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Srdan Kitic. Cosparse regularization of physics-driven inverse problems. Signal and Image Processing. Université Rennes 1, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015REN1S152⟩. ⟨tel-01237323v3⟩

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